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Muqaddimah ibn khaldun ebook torrents


muqaddimah ibn khaldun ebook torrents

Next Barbara Kingsolver Flight Behavior Retail EPUB eBook-BitBoo Next The Muqaddimah – Ibn Khaldun [Formatted and Bookmarke. Download The Muqaddimah – Ibn Khaldun [Formatted and Bookmarke torrent or any other torrent from Ebooks category. 39df1acd5feaadf India whose chief representatives unleashed a torrent of abuse against him of “Ana'l- Haqq,” and then invokes Ibn Khaldūn as the Muslim sage who felt. ED HARDY TATTOO THE WORLD TORRENT After a are currently paint a extended bench Google failed the like other also bench route-map beat. Endpoint the was. The source provides Architect when as a change, that. SimonRaven: smart the stand other volume the this sent time the next. Your certified your followed.

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Muqaddima Ibn Khaldun Arabic Edition. EMBED for wordpress. Want more? Advanced embedding details, examples, and help! Publication date Topics Scholar of Islam Historian , Economics , Publisher : Palgrave Macmillan New York. Hardcover ISBN : Softcover ISBN : Edition Number : 1. Number of Pages : X, Skip to main content. Search SpringerLink Search. Authors: Robert Rozehnal. Buying options eBook EUR Softcover Book EUR Hardcover Book EUR Learn about institutional subscriptions.

Table of contents 7 chapters Search within book Search. Front Matter Pages i-x. Conclusions Robert Rozehnal Pages Back Matter Pages About this book Robert Rozehnal traces the ritual practices and identity politics of a contemporary Sufi order in Pakistan: the Chishti Sabris.

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Toggle navigation. Main Muqaddimah. History - World History. ISBN Your tags:. Send to. The file will be sent to your email address. It may take up to minutes before you receive it. The file will be sent to your Kindle account. It may takes up to minutes before you received it. Please note : you need to verify every book you want to send to your Kindle.

Check your mailbox for the verification email from Amazon Kindle. Conversion to is failed. You may be interested in Powered by Rec2Me. Alot of enlightening material. Not an easy read. Ibn Khaldun's knowledge on various historical and sociological issues seems vast. I do not have the necessary knowledge to properly judge all parts of this book by its content, but I have to give a 5 star due to its exhaustive coverage of so many topics, by a brilliant mind.

Another proof of the height Islamic culture and civilization had once reached. What a stupendous and significant piece of work this is. Whilst we have lost sight of texts produced in Arab, Asian, and Islamic cultures and knowledge centers of the west fully recognize their significance. I for instance learnt more of what a path-breaking book this was - a world history, a multi-disciplinary perspective on diverse themes of religion, culture, laws and society, a critical guide to historiography, perhaps the first treatise ever on sociology, and so much more - from my doctoral What a stupendous and significant piece of work this is.

I for instance learnt more of what a path-breaking book this was - a world history, a multi-disciplinary perspective on diverse themes of religion, culture, laws and society, a critical guide to historiography, perhaps the first treatise ever on sociology, and so much more - from my doctoral supervisor while studying texts in sociology of law. The introduction itself - the muqaddimah - has of course come to be regarded as a pioneering and authoritative text in the genealogy of primers on a multiplicity of themes, and especially historiography, history and sociology.

Kindness from colleagues is hoped for. It is God whom I ask to make our deeds acceptable in His sight. The entire method to it - context, prudence, logic, philosophy, comparativism, cultural relativism, the fact that cultures and society are dynamic and change with time - is something that he elaborates on quite brilliantly. More to come Ibn Khaldoun's Muqaddimah is frequently described as a work of proto-sociology and economics.

There is a grain of truth to that, but the similarity lies more in the subject matter than the manner of inquiry. I think the scientific virtues of this book have been somewhat exaggerated, in part because of its enthusiastic reception by systematic historians such as Toynbee who were making their own effort to create or discover a general theory of history.

But to my eyes, Ibn Khaldoun's method is more Ibn Khaldoun's Muqaddimah is frequently described as a work of proto-sociology and economics. But to my eyes, Ibn Khaldoun's method is more that of a speculative philosopher than a scientist. He infers general patterns on the basis of a small number of examples, and regards the patterns as prior to the actuality.

The scientific approach would be somewhat the other way around, where the empirical example would provoke a hypothesis that would then be tested on further examples. But Ibn Khaldoun moves very quickly to a state of epistemic closure, precisely of the kind I find endemic to the Islamic thought-world of his era, and beyond.

Rather than reading this book as a progressive predecessor to the scientific revolution, I position it as a conservative work that attempts to maintain something of the rational-empirical method of the High Middle Ages in the face of its waning under the burgeoning influence of al-Ghazali. I see this book not as the forecast of the sciences of sociology and economics, but as a late example of the rationalism that had been typical of much of the thought of al-Andalus and the 'Abbasid caliphate.

I think few of his actual statements of fact will be too persuasive for the modern reader, from his position that the sun is neither hot nor cold to his view that blacks are well known to be less intelligent to his view that royalty proceeds from holy authority, and urban settled life proceeds from both. But this is a work of some interest to the intellectual historian. This book is sheer madness and he says he wrote it in five months.

If a 20th century update had existed it certainly would have "Undoubtedly the greatest work of its kind that has ever been created by any mind in any time or place If a 20th century update had existed it certainly would have been included in the inventory of Voyager. This book is almost pre-apocalyptic, I imagine Ibn Khaldun in desperation trying to preserve every-single-thing-ever about humanity before its collapse. This is post-crusade and mid-plague and in the twilight of the Islamic empire, so if Khaldun really was desperate to consolidate and preserve he wouldn't have been too far off.

Of course, he does intend for someone in the future to use this as a jumping-off point for a second edition, so what I just said is easily and immediately refutable, but I still can't help but wonder whether that played any motivating role at all. What I can't imagine however is Khaldun - or anyone at all for that matter - being able to or even bother trying to write something comparable today.

This was one of a handful of books I'd prefer to have at arms reach at all times. The method. The development of ideas. The use of those built up constructs to build other ideas. It's a logicians dream. The middle few chapters made me rave about this to everyone I know with a mind.

This book is absolutely essential to anyone attempting to understand the world. I read this because of Mark Zuckerburg and was excited as I had planned a trip to Morocco in the New Year, so this seemed relevant and app This was one of a handful of books I'd prefer to have at arms reach at all times. I read this because of Mark Zuckerburg and was excited as I had planned a trip to Morocco in the New Year, so this seemed relevant and appropriate.

I wasn't expecting to have it fill in so many gaps in my objective understanding of the world. I can see the world with clearer eyes. I tried reading the unabrdiged version of this translation twenty years ago after reading Toynbee's high praise, and never made it near the end. But this time it was fantastic. This is one of the great books of Western Civilisation. We would be so much better off today if we had the same common sense grasp of philosophy, pedagogy, and economics Ibn Khaldun displays here.

His section on speculative theology alone contains everything anyone with a little bit of gumption needs to wipe the floor wit I tried reading the unabrdiged version of this translation twenty years ago after reading Toynbee's high praise, and never made it near the end. His section on speculative theology alone contains everything anyone with a little bit of gumption needs to wipe the floor with the 'New Atheists'.

Is good. I can't say anything about it, would just copy the statement of Franz Rosenthal on the Muqaddimah: It can be regarded as the earliest attempt made by any historian to discover a pattern in the changes that occur in man's political and social organization. Rational in its approach, analytical in its method, encyclopaedic in detail, it represents an almost complete departure from traditional historiography, discarding conventional concepts and cliches and seeking, beyond the mere chronicle of event I can't say anything about it, would just copy the statement of Franz Rosenthal on the Muqaddimah: It can be regarded as the earliest attempt made by any historian to discover a pattern in the changes that occur in man's political and social organization.

Rational in its approach, analytical in its method, encyclopaedic in detail, it represents an almost complete departure from traditional historiography, discarding conventional concepts and cliches and seeking, beyond the mere chronicle of events, an explanation—and hence a philosophy of history. Talking about my experience reading 'Al-Muqaddimah' - much less writing a review - is something that necessitates humility at the very first instance.

This work is so vast, so intellectual, that I found myself consistently in awe and questioning how it was possible for a single man to have so much worldly knowledge and wisdom contained within him. This is less of a review than an attempt to gather my thoughts after finishing this monumental work. The topics spoken about were wide-ranging, yet fami Talking about my experience reading 'Al-Muqaddimah' - much less writing a review - is something that necessitates humility at the very first instance.

The topics spoken about were wide-ranging, yet familiar enough to any introspective person that reading Ibn Khaldun's perspective and thoughts on them was both fresh and insightful. So what is this book about? While Ibn Khaldun talks about everything from taxes, stages of empire, desert toughness, royal authority, the corrupting influence of luxury, dreams, poetry, eloquence, habits, the relationship between a citizen and the state, hunger, the soul and much more , the book is also peppered with practical, timeless advice on good character and how to deal with people in different scenarios.

Although it is undoubtable that much of the nuance of what he is explaining must be lost when reading his work in English as opposed to the original Arabic, the benefit gained from even the English translation is unlike anything I have read prior. I will admit however, that I had to mentally prepare myself for reading this book. This preparation was nothing short of beginning my reading journey a few years prior. If I had dived into this book even years ago, I doubt I would have been able to finish it.

It was extremely heavy and it took me a good pages for me to even feel welcome. My personal belief in not giving up on a good book ultimately allowed me to succeed in the completion of this work, though I imagine many would not be able to make it past the first big hurdle. Nonetheless, I am openly bearing witness that overcoming and persevering through the initial hurdle is worth it. Finishing this book will stretch your mind to such limits that it will not be able to return to its original dimensions.

Even if we don't accept all of his conclusions, the work itself is one that cannot be dismissed and which stands proudly amongst the many must-read books in human history. The main takeaway I gathered from this book is that desert toughness is the first stage to the foundation of a civilisation.

Living to one's maximum level of personal freedom, while being responsible as much as possible for your own security and developing a shared sense of group unity are the fundamental ingredients to ascendency in the land and God knows best. It is obvious to the reader that Ibn Khaldun was a master at observing the world around him, at looking past the overlay which wraps itself around everyday life and decoding the patterns behind human behaviour, social structures and political institutions that surround us.

I will keep many of his advices, parables and letters as notes to return to in the hopes of extracting benefit from it time after time. For anyone on the fence about this book, if you have any interest in the nature of man, the structure of society and stages of civilisation then this is a must-read. Prepare yourself to endure long drawn-out sections in order to extract fragrance from its bud.

The destination is worth the journey. It is at this point I humbly end my review with the belief that I simply cannot do this work justice in the words available to me at this time. Neither you nor Zuckerberg have read the Muqaddimah. Cause this is not the Muqaddimah. This is something condensed by someone who did not write it and wants to tell you what's important and decide for you what is relevant. Calling a book that is but one third of its size the Muqaddimah is a travesty.

Well, if you've gotta ask, chances are you'll never get to know. But, out of concern for your education, I'll give you a friendly hint: note the remark made in the final paragraph in the Forewo Neither you nor Zuckerberg have read the Muqaddimah. But, out of concern for your education, I'll give you a friendly hint: note the remark made in the final paragraph in the Foreword about the mistakes the book must contain. He wants you to "silently correct and overlook" the mistakes he makes.

Yes, overlook and don't bother to mention it to him. Okay, I'll give you a hint as to what this means- lot of good that'll do ya!! While the examples of historical errors dealing with Arab history in the introduction may be obscure, most will be familiar with the instances given by Ibn Khaldun that are taken from the Bible.

He says, as if merely criticizing Islamic scholarship on the topic, that the K figure given for the army commanded by Moses is absurd see Numbers Read this in light of what he later says in the introduction about the size of the Israelite kingdom. That's all I'll say. It's a shame your college professors will teach you that ancient and medieval thinkers are simply more backwards than our enlightened selves, otherwise you'd be able to read this properly.

At any rate, that is why this abridged thing calling itself the Muqaddimah is garbage. You need the whole thing- every sentence. There once was a time when Islamic civilization ruled the Mediterranean. They were the most progressive civilzation in terms of science, education, medicine, politics, and the social management of society. At the same time, Europeans farther to the north were drowning in the theological muck of the Dark Ages.

At the height of this golden age of Islam, a Tunisian scholar of Islamic jurisprudence named Ibn Khaldun wrote an encyclopedic work of erudition, the first volume of which, The Muqaddimah, There once was a time when Islamic civilization ruled the Mediterranean. At the height of this golden age of Islam, a Tunisian scholar of Islamic jurisprudence named Ibn Khaldun wrote an encyclopedic work of erudition, the first volume of which, The Muqaddimah, served as an introduction to the other books that were meant to explain the entire world.

What you take away from The Muqaddimah will largely depend on your intentions for reading it. From the beginning chapters it becomes clear that this is not a book you would read for accurate information. It is full of Medieval occult ideas regarding things like astrology, geomancy, alchemy, and sorcery.

The passages on science are often easy to laugh at; Ibn Khaldun claims the Earth is hotter than the sun and people can not breathe underwater because human bodies are cold and water is cold so inhaling it upsets the balance between hot and cold that is necessary for human survival.

The 14th century may have been a golden age of Islamic science but it still was before the Renaissance, the Enlightenment, and the advent of modern scientific methodology. He was doing the best he could with the knowledge that was available to him then. In the early passages of this book, he clearly makes an argument in favor of separating sense from nonsense.

He clearly states that old stories and ideas that have been passed down over time and embellished over the generations should be regarded with suspicion and sometimes even discarded. Stories, histories, ideas, and beliefs should be investigated using science and rationality to gain a greater understanding of the truth. In many ways, Ibn Khaldun was a good progressive liberal thinker, even if he uses junk science to dismiss the implausible realities of fairy tales and miracles.

The most interesting part of The Muqaddimah is the section dealing with Islamic history and the theory that Ibn Khaldun outlines for its interpretation. Predating the philosophies of Hegel, Nietzsche, and Marx, Ibn Khaldun lays out a theoretical framework that spans a continuum of cultural development.

At one end of this spectrum is the nomadic people whose lives in the desert make them tough and strong while at the other end is the sedentary societies characterized by wealth, luxury, and weakness due to easier living conditions. Ibn Khaldun argues that the luxuries of the sedentary cultures limit the life-cycles of ruling dynasties but also are necessary for the building of complex societies.

In the 14th century, Islamic scholars had reached a critical point where they were self-conscious enough to step away from history and society so they could theorize abstractly and sociologically about how human societies function. For this reason, Ibn Khaldun is regarded by many historians as being the father of the social sciences. The rest of the book is a compilation of writings detailing various areas of education and scholarship.

It is like a rudimentary version of Wikipedia. A lot of the information is seven centuries out of date but it does give you some insight into how people of that era viewed the world. An interesting thing to take notice of is how Ibn Khaldun limits his own parameters for scientific or philosophical inquiry. He may have been a rationalist but he was only willing to take his progressive liberal thinking so far. Many historians have claimed that Al-Ghazali was responsible for the decline of Islam as he caused Muslims to abandon all they had accomplished while turning toward a more fundamentalist and conservative brand of religion.

The Muslims have never regained their status in the world community as a result. Ibn Khaldun lends support to this idea and even goes so far as to diminish the importance of the scientific knowledge he documents in comparison to the revelations experienced in the Sufi sect to which he belonged.

In the end, he valued emotion over rationality just like the majority of Muslims ever since. While this was happening, the Christians of Europe took up all the secular advances made by the Muslims, especially those written in books, and ushered in the modern world. Herein lies a historical lesson for Americans in the 21st century.

It would be a tragedy if we allow the most ignorant members of society to prevent the greatest minds of our world from flourishing for the benefit of all humanity. It has happened before and it can happen again. The Muqaddimah is a compilation of common knowledge, outdated information, and easily disproven science. It can be overly simplistic, redundant, and tainted by beliefs that are specific to a particular religious tradition, one that is sometimes considered heretical by mainstream Muslim standards.

What can be gained from reading it? It is a work of great historical importance due to its influence on the development of the social sciences. It also gives a clear explanation of how Medieval scholars perceived the world in the broadest perspective. Not only that, but it gives a clear picture of how a specifically Islamic scholar saw reality in his time. For those interested in the history of human consciousness and intellectualism, Ibn Khaldun provides us with some valuable insights.

The Muqaddimah can also act as a reference point for where we are in the 21st century and where we might be heading depending on whether we choose to make the right or wrong decisions. Despite his epistemological shortcomings and erroneous science, Ibn Khaldun was a great thinker in his time and for that we should acknowledge and honor him for his contributions to our understanding of who we are as the human race.

Shelves: own. If I could enter a negative rating, I would. This is a fabricated history based, not upon records or facts, but upon the idea that the Koran's position must be supported at all costs including fabrication of events. This work is a fraud. Did you know that civilization began in the desert? Yes, that's what the author asserts to fortify the belief that, since Muhammed came from the desert, it must be ordained that the desert and its inhabitants are above reproach.

Only the ignorant assume otherwis If I could enter a negative rating, I would. Only the ignorant assume otherwise. View 1 comment. It also includes, among many other things, a detailed discussion of how to tell real prophets from fake. I remember that part, I think, because it drove home for me how very different his world and mindset are from mine.

Interesting account of Islamic history and the evolution of societies. I particularly liked the Epistle instructions that the secretary 'Abd-al-Hamid' addressed to his fellow secretaries: And now: May God guard you who practice the craft of secretaryship, and may He keep you and give you success and guidance.

There are prophets and messengers and highly honored kings. After them come different kinds of men, all of them made by God. They are of different kinds, even if they are all alike in fact. God o Interesting account of Islamic history and the evolution of societies. God occupied them with different kinds of crafts and various sorts of businesses, so that they might be able to make a living and earn their sustenance.

He gave to you, assembled secretaries, the great opportunity to be men of education and gentlemen, to have knowledge and good judgment. Through your advice, God improves the government for the benefit of human beings and makes their countries civilized. The ruler cannot dispense with you. You alone make him a competent ruler. Your position with regard to rulers is that you are the ears through which they hear, the eyes through which they see, the tongues through which they speak, and the hands through which they touch.

May God give you, therefore, enjoyment of the excellent craft with which He has distinguished you, and may He not deprive you of the great favors that He has shown unto you. No craftsman needs more than you to combine all praiseworthy good traits and all memorable and highly regarded excellent qualities, O secretaries, if you aspire to fit the description given of you in this letter.

The secretary needs on his own account, and his master, who trusts him with his important affairs, expects him, to be mild where mildness is needed, to be understanding where judgment is needed, to be enterprising where enterprise is needed, to be hesitant where hesitation is needed. He must prefer modesty, justice, and fairness.

He must keep secrets. He must be faithful in difficult circumstances. He must know beforehand about the calamities that may come. He must be able to put things in their proper places and misfortunes into their proper categories. He must have studied every branch of learning and know it well, and if he does not know it well, he must at least have acquired an adequate amount of it.

By virtue of his natural intelligence, good education, and outstanding experience, he must know what is going to happen to him before it happens, and he must know the result of his actions before action starts. He must make the proper preparations for everything, and he must set up everything in its proper, customary form. Therefore, assembled secretaries, vie with each other to acquire the different kinds of education and to gain an understanding of religious matters.

Start with knowledge of the Book of God and religious duties. Then, study the Arabic language, as that will give you a cultivated form of speech. Then, learn to write well, as that will be an ornament to your letters. Transmit poetry and acquaint yourselves with the rare expressions and ideas that poems contain.

Acquaint yourselves also with both Arab and nonArab political events, and with the tales of both groups and the biographies describing them, as that will be helpful to you in your endeavors. Do not neglect to study accounting, for it is the mainstay of the land tax register. Do not let your craft be a low one. Guard against backbiting and calumny and the actions of stupid people. Beware of haughtiness, foolishness, and pride, for they mean acquiring hostility without even the excuse of hatred.

Love each other in God in your craft. Advise your colleagues to practice it in a way befitting your virtuous, fair, and gifted predecessors. If times go hard for one of you, be kind to him and console him, until everything be well with him again. Should old age make one of you unable to get around and pursue his livelihood and meet his friends, visit him and honor him and consult him, and profit from his outstanding experience and mature knowledge.

Every one of you should be more concerned for his assistants, who may be useful when needed, than for his own children or brothers. Should some praise come to one of you in the course of his work, he should ascribe the merit to his colleague; any blame he should bear all by himself.

He should beware of mistakes and slips and of being annoyed when conditions change. For you, assembled secretaries, are more prompt to be blamed than Qur'an readers, and blame is more detrimental to you than to them. You know that everyone of you has a master, one who gives from his own as much as can be expected, and every one of you has the obligation to repay him, since he deserves it, with fidelity, gratefulness, tolerance, patience, good counsel, discretion, and active interest in his affairs, and to show his good intentions by his actions whenever his master needs him and his resources.

Be conscious of your obligations - God give you success - in good and bad circumstances, in privation as in munificence and kindness, in happiness as in misfortune. Any member of this noble craft who has all these qualities has good qualities indeed. If any one of you be appointed to an office, or if some matter that concerns God's children be turned over to one of you, he should think of God and choose obedience to Him.

He should be kind to the weak and fair to those who have been wronged. All creatures are God's children. He loves most those who are kindest to His children. Furthermore, he should judge with justice, he should honor the noble descendants of Muhammad , augment the booty gained in wars against infidels , and bring civilization to the country. He should be friendly to the subjects, and refrain from harming them.

He should be humble and mild in his office. He should be kind in handling the land tax registers and in calling in outstanding claims. You should explore the character of him with whom you associate. When his good and bad sides are known, you will be able to help him to do the good things that agree with him, and be able to contrive to keep him from the bad things he desires.

You must be able to do that in the subtlest and best manner. You know that a person who is in charge of an animal and understands his job, endeavors to know the character of the animal. If it is inclined to gallop, he does not goad it when he is riding it.

If it is inclined to kick, he takes precautions with its forelegs. If he fears that it will shy, he takes precautions with its head. If it is restive, he gently subdues its desire to go where it wants to go. If it still continues, he pulls it slightly to the side, then has its halter loosened. This description of how to take care of an animal contains good points for those who want to lead human beings and deal with them, serve them, and have intimate contact with them.

The secretary, with his excellent education, his noble craft, his subtlety, his frequent dealings with people who confer with him and discuss things with him and learn from him or fear his severity, needs to be kind to his associates,a to flatter them, and to supply their wants, even more than the person in charge of an animal which cannot answer, does not know what is right, does not understand what is said to it, and goes only where its master who rides upon it makes it go.

Be kind - God show mercy unto you-when you look after things. Use as much reflection and thought as possible. God permitting, you will thus escape harshness, annoyance, and rudeness on the part of your associates. They will be in agreement with you, and you will have their friendship and protection, if God wills.

None of you should have too sumptuous an office or go beyond the proper limits in his dress, his mount, his food, his drink, his house, his servants, or in the other things pertaining to his station, for, despite the nobility of the craft by which God has distinguished you, you are servants who are not permitted to fall short in their service. You are caretakers whom one does not permit to be wasteful or spendthrift.

Try to preserve your modesty by planned moderation in all the things I have mentioned and told you. Beware of the wastefulness of prodigality and the bad results of luxury. They engender poverty and bring about humiliation. People who are prodigal and live in luxury are put to shame, especially if they be secretaries and men of education. Things repeat themselves. One thing contains the clue to another.

Let yourselves be guided in your future undertakings-by your previous experience. Then, choose the method of doing things that is most definite, most accurate, and that promises the best result. You should know that there is something that defeats accomplishment, namely, talking about things. The person who does it is prevented from using his knowledge and his ability to think. Therefore, everyone of you, while he is in his office, should endeavor to talk no more than is sufficient; he should be concise in the matters he brings up and in the answers he gives; and he should give thought to all the arguments he advances.

His work will profit from that. It will prevent too much preoccupation with other things. He should implore God to grant him success and to support him with His guidance, for he must fear making mistakes that might hurt his body and cast doubt upon his intelligence and education. When any one of you says or thinks that the high quality and efficiency of his work is obviously the result of his own cleverness and knowledge of how to do things, he provokes God.

God will let him depend upon himself alone, and then he will find that he is not adequate to his task. This is no secret to those who reflect. None of you should say that he has a better understanding of affairs, or knows better how to handle difficult matters, than other members of his craft, than those who serve together with him. Of two persons, discerning people consider him the more intelligent who throws off conceit and thinks his colleagues more intelligent and more skillful than he.

But at any rate, both parties should acknowledge the excellence of God's favors. No one should let himself be deceived by his own opinions and consider himself free from mistakes. Nor should he strive to outdo his friends, equals, colleagues, or his family.

Everybody must give praise to God, in humility in the face of His greatness, in meekness in the face of His might, and in fulfillment of the command to speak of God's favors. Therefore, I have placed it at the end, and I close the letter with it. May God take care of us and of you, assembled students and secretaries, in the same way He takes care of those whom, as He knows in His prescience, He will make happy and guide aright.

He can do it. It is in His hand. Farewell, and God's mercy and blessings upon you For on the surface history is no more than information about political events, dynasties, and occurrences of the remote past, elegantly presented and spiced with proverbs. The inner meaning of history, on the other hand, involves speculation and an attempt to get at the truth, subtle explanation of the causes and origins of existing things, and deep knowledge of the how and why of events.

History, therefore, is firmly rooted in philosophy. It deserves to be accounted a branch of philosophy. Blind trust in tradition is an inherited trait in human beings. Occupation with the scholarly disciplines on the part of those who have no right is widespread. But the pasture of stupidity is unwholesome for mankind. No one can stand up against the authority of truth, and the evil of falsehood is to be fought with enlightening speculation. The reporter merely dictates and passes on the material.

It takes critical insight to sort out the hidden truth; it takes knowledge to lay truth bare and polish it so that critical insight may be applied to it. The writing of history requires numerous sources and greatly varied knowledge.

It also requires a good speculative mind and thoroughness. Historians, Qur'an commentators and leading transmitters have committed frequent errors in the stories and events they reported. They accepted them in the plain transmitted form, without regard for its value. They did not check them with the principles underlying such historical situations, nor did they compare them with similar material.

Therefore, today, the scholar in this field needs to know the principles of politics, the true nature of existent things, and the differences among nations, places, and periods with regard to ways of life, character qualities, customs, sects, schools, and everything else. He further needs a comprehensive knowledge of present conditions in all these respects. However, if the soul is infected with partisanship for a particular opinion or sect, it accepts without a moment's hesitation the information that is agreeable to it.

Prejudice and partisanship obscure the critical faculty and preclude critical investigation. Another reason is the fact that people as a rule approach great and high-ranking persons with praise and encomiums. The knowledge that has not come down to us is larger than the knowledge that has.

IN THE BOOKS of philosophers who speculated about the condition of the world, it has been explained that the earth has a spherical shape and is enveloped by the element of water. The geographical degree is twenty-five parasangs, the parasang being 12, cubits or three miles, since one mile has 4, cubits. The cubit is twenty-four fingers, and the finger is six grains of barley placed closely together in one row. The Euphrates begins in Armenia in the sixth section of the fifth zone.

The Tigris originates in a number of springs in the country of Khilat, which is also in Armenia. Through these mountains, there are passes which are called ad-Durub mountain passes. They lead into Armenia. This section contains a portion of Armenia situated between these mountains and the Chain Mountain. The area to the right of the Durub, between them and the Mediterranean, comprises the Byzantine territory: Anatolia. At this time, it belongs to the Turkomans and is ruled by Ibn Uthman the Ottomans.

Armenia, which lies between the Durub and the Chain Mountain, comprises Mar'ash, Malatya, and Ankara, up to the northern end of the section. In Armenia, in the fifth section, originate the river Jayhan and, to the east of it, the river Sayhan. The Jayhan flows south until it has traversed the Durub. The Euphrates and the Tigris traverse this area in the middle. They originate in the fifth zone, pass southward through Armenia, and cross the Chain Mountain.

The Euphrates, then, flows west of Samosata and Saruj in an easterly direction. The other subdivision contains part of Armenia, including its principal place, al-Marighah. In the south of this the Tigris and Euphrates originate. In the north, there is the country of al-Baylagin, which adjoins the land of Amorium behind Mount Qubagib and extends far.

At its end, where the Euphrates originates, is Kharshanah. The sixth section of the fifth zone contains in the southwest the country of Armenia, which extends eastward beyond the middle of the section. Arzan Erzerum is in the southwest of Armenia.

To the north of it, lie Tiflis and Dabil. East of Arzan is the city of Khilat, followed by Bardha'ah. In the southeast is the capital city of Armenia. There, Armenia, entering the fourth zone, includes. In this section, and in the The city of Derbend, which belongs to this country, lies on the Caspian Sea. In the southwest, the country of the "Gates" adjoins Armenia. They are found eager to dance whenever they hear a melody. They are everywhere described as stupid.

The real reason for these opinions is that, as has been shown by philosophers in the proper place, joy and gladness are due to expansion and diffusion of the animal spirit. The Egyptians are dominated by joyfulness, levity, and disregard for the future. They store no provisions of food, neither for a month nor a year ahead, but purchase most of it daily in the market.

Muhammad SAW said: "Every infant is born in the natural state. It is his parents who make him a Jew or a Christian or a Magian. Savage nations are better able to achieve superiority than others. It should be known that since, as we have stated in the Third Prefatory Discussion, desert life no doubt is the reason for bravery, savage groups are braver than others.

They are, therefore, better able to achieve superiority and to take away the things that are in the hands of other nations. Superiority comes to nations through enterprise and courage. Thus, wherever an Arab tribe leads a life of luxury and abundance, while another does not, the one holding fast to desert life the longer will be superior to and more powerful than the other, if both parties are otherwise equal in strength and number.

Meekness and docility to outsiders that may come to be found in a tribe are obstacles on the way toward royal authority. The reason for this is that meekness and docility break the vigor and strength of group feeling. The very fact that people are meek and docile shows that their group feeling is lost. They do not become fond of meekness until they are too weak to defend themselves. Those who are too weak to defend themselves are all the more weak when it comes to withstanding their enemies and pre This situation was the result of the quality of docility and the longing to be subservient to the Egyptians, which the Israelites had acquired through many long years and which led eventually to the complete loss of their group feeling.

Thus, a new group feeling could grow up in the new generation, and that new group feeling enabled them to press their claims and to achieve superiority. Whoever loses his group feeling is too weak to do any of these things. A sign of the qualification of an individual for royal authority is his eager desire to acquire praiseworthy qualities, and vice versa. Whenever we observe people who possess group feeling and who have gained control over many lands and nations, we find in them an eager desire for goodness and good qualities, such as generosity, the forgiveness of error, tolerance toward the weak, hospitality toward guests, the support of dependents, maintenance of the indigent, patience in adverse circumstances, faithful fulfillment of obligations, liberality with money for the preservation of honor, respect for the religious law and for the scholars who are learned in it, observation of the things to be done or not to be done that those While a nation is savage, its royal authority extends farther.

These savage peoples, furthermore, have no homelands that they might use as a fertile pasture, and no fixed place to which they might repair. All regions and places are the same to them. Therefore, they do not restrict themselves to possession of their own and neighbouring regions. They do not stop at the borders of their horizon. They swarm across distant zones and achieve superiority over faraway nations. A nation that has been defeated and come under the rule of another nation will quickly perish.

When hope and the things it stimulates are gone through apathy, and when group feeling has disappeared under the impact of defeat, civilization decreases and business and other activities stop. Therefore, the Negro nations are, as a rule, submissive to slavery, because Negroes have little that is essentially human and have attributes that are quite similar to those of dumb animals, as we have stated. Such people are customarily claimed by the dynasty for itself.

Thus, they are not ashamed to be slaves, because they hope to be chosen for high position by the dynasty. Arabs can gain control only over flat territory. This is because, on account of their savage nature, the Arabs are people who plunder and cause damage. They plunder whatever they are able to lay their hands on Places that succumb to the Arabs are quickly ruined. For instance, the Arabs need stones to set them up as supports for their cooking pots. So, they take them from buildings which they tear down to get the stones, and use them for that purpose.

It is noteworthy how civilization always collapsed in places the Arabs took over and conquered, and how such settlements were depopulated and the very earth there turned into something that was no longer earth. Persian civilization in the Arab 'Iraq is likewise completely ruined. The same applies to contemporary Syria. Arabs can obtain royal authority only by making use of some religious coloring, such as prophecy, or sainthood, or some great religious event in general. The reason for this is that because of their savagery, the Arabs are the least willing of nations to subordinate themselves to each other, as they are rude, proud, ambitious, and eager to be the leader.

Their individual aspirations rarely coincide. But when there is religion among them through prophecy or sainthood, then they have some restraining influence in themselves. The Arabs are of all nations the one most remote from royal leadership. A nation dominated by the Arabs is in a state no different from anarchy, where everybody is set against the others.

Such a civilization cannot last and goes quickly to ruins, as would be the case in a state of anarchy, as we have mentioned before. For all these reasons, the Arabs are by nature remote from royal leadership. Religious propaganda cannot materialize without group feeling. Many religious people who follow the ways of religion come to revolt against unjust amirs. They call for a change in, and prohibition of, evil practices and for good practices. They hope for a divine reward for what they do.

They gain many followers and sympathizers among the great mass of the people, but they risk being killed, and most of them actually do perish in consequence of their activities as sinners and unrewarded, because God had not destined them for such activities as they undertake.

The greatness of a dynasty, the extent of its territory, and the length of its duration depend upon the numerical strength of its supporters. A dynasty rarely establishes itself firmly in lands with many different tribes and groups. Therefore, it has taken the Arabs a long time to establish their dynasty in the land of Ifriqiyah and the Maghrib. The same was the case in Syria in the age of the Israelites.

At that time, there existed there a very large number of tribes with a great variety of group feelings, such as the tribes of Palestine and Canaan, the children of Esau, the Midyanites, the children of Lot, the Edomites, the Armenians, the Amalekites, Girgashites, and the Nabataeans from the Jazirah and Mosul. Therefore, it was difficult for the Israelites to establish their dynasty firmly. This is what happened to the Turkish dynasty in the East. Most members of its army were Turkish clients.

The Turkish rulers then chose horsemen and soldiers from among the white slaves Mamelukes who were brought to them. The reply was: "Yes, my Lord, I attended the banquet of one of the provincial governors marzbans of the Persian king, 20 - Armenia: 13,, dirhams, Embroidered carpets: 20 Variegated cloth: pounds, Salted Surmahi fish: 10, pounds Herring: 10, pounds, Mules: , Falcons: 30 The meaning of caliphate and imamate.

As explained, the real meaning of royal authority is that it is a form of organization necessary to mankind. The second kind of war - war caused by hostility - is usually found among savage nations living in the desert, such as the Arabs, the Turks, the Turkomans, the Kurds, and similar peoples. They earn their sustenance with their lances and their livelihood by depriving other people of their possessions. Injustice brings about the ruin of civilization.

It should be known that attacks on people's property remove the incentive to acquire and gain property. The buildings and constructions in Islam are comparatively few considering Islam's power and as compared to the dynasties preceding Islam. The reason for this is the very same thing that we mentioned concerning the Berbers.

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