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This winter festival was called. Many scholars have pointed out how the Sun- worshipping Mithraists, the Sun-worshipping Manicheans and the Christians were all syncretised and reconciled when Constantine led the take-over by Christianity[ However, other Sun-worshipping groups were included too, because of the general importance and popularity of Sol Invictus, the Invincible Sun-deity. Mario Righetti, a renowned Catholic liturgist, writes, "the Church of Rome, to facilitate the acceptance of the faith by the pagan masses, found it convenient to institute the 25th December as the feast of the temporal birth of Christ, to divert them from the pagan feast, celebrated on the same day in honour of the 'Invincible Sun', Mithras.

In these solemnities and festivities the Christians also took part. Hutton highlights the role that the celebration of light has had through all the threads of history that combined to become part of the symbols of modern Christmas. It must also be clear that many Christmas customs are, as we heard from Moojan Momen and Prof. Hutton, very ancient. But they have in present centuries been combined with the very modern phenomenon of commercialism.

Pagan sun-worshippers divided the sky into 12 zodiacs, which is why Jesus, Mithras and other god-men had 12 disciples. Christmas day, by other names, "was the ancient feast-day of the Sun, in the depths of winter", pre-dating Christianity1. But the exact date of the Winter Solstice changes slowly over time. Today it falls around 22 December"6.

The Roman religion of Mithraism, which existed for hundreds of years before Christians started celebrating Christmas, holds that the birth of Mithras was on the 25th of December. In another coincidence, the birth of Mithras was also said 'to have been witnessed by three shepherds'7. The most skeptical view of modern Christmas is that the fads, decorations, festive goods and all the paraphernalia are a commercial scam to make us spend money on over-priced useless goods.

However true this is, it has also become a secular social festival much akin to the American thanksgiving. Families come together at Christmas even if they do not for the rest of the year. It probably helps that Christmas and New Year's celebrations have become institutionally intertwined. These make Christmas in essence a meaningful family celebration, even if on top of that there is a thick cover of shallow commercialism. The festivities are largely led by commerce and retail outlets: The relevant decorations, cards, food and goods are all marketed for Christmas, and it is the High Streets that press Christmas upon the populace way before the populace itself is ready.

It is a frequent complaint that stores start Christmas "too early" and too aggressively. Several elements of Christmas are the invention purely of commercial advertisements. Take the example of the commercial invention of the Christmas card; with corporate effort, these would have remained an expensive privilege of the rich.

By it was often carried on among the wealthier classes by sending a short poem engraved within an ornamental framework. In , therefore, a fresh start was made by the stationers Messrs Charles Goodall, which printed cheap plain greetings. By the end of the decade they were becoming decorated, and other firms were producing them.

The human figurehead of the festive season is a modern creation; before the seventeenth century such a figure has no history. It was done then partly because of the general taste of the age for allegory and partly because the criticism of observation of the feast by radical Protestants made a representation of it convenient to writers determined to defend it. Thus in Ben Jonson introduced to the world, Christmas His Masque, presented a figure 'in a round hose, long stockings, a close doublet, a high-crowned hat with a brooch, a long thin beard, a truncheon, little ruffs, white shoes, his scarfs, and garters tied cross.

He was essentially concerned with the adult world, personifying feasting and games, he had no connection with presents, and he was not treated with much respect, being generally a burlesque figure of fun. Then Santa Claus turned up. In origins he was, of course, the medieval patron of children, St Nicholas, who remained a favourite popular figure amongst the Dutch.

Irving's portrait was repeated in an issue of the Children's Friend, published in the same city, and that may have been the direct inspiration to another New Yorker, Clement Clark Moore, to create the modern Santa. He wore fur cloths, had a bushy white beard, traveled through the sky merrily in a sleigh drawn by reindeer, and came down chimneys with a sack of gifts. From , Haddon Sundblom the illustrator for Coca Cola "drew a series of Santa images in their Christmas advertisements until "10, which is where the tradition of a Santa Claus wearing red comes from.

The colours red and green had always been prominent in Christmas card greetings, however. Prominent elements of Christmas are commercial inventions, from Father Christmas and his suit to Christmas Cards. The history of commercialist Christmas is older still than those creations.

From the s onwards, The Times broadsheet could be relied upon to attack the commercialism of Christmas Clearly, its commercialisation has not destroyed it and since the nineteenth century, it has become even more popular than ever. To remove the commercial aspects of Christmas would be largely to destroy it; religious activists would create in its place a series of historically-challenged myths and break it into a sectarian event.

Without commercialism the general populace, Protestant Christians, secularists and evangelical Christians would all cease to have anything in common during the festive season. Despite the nature-reveration, pagan festivals and sun-worship that formed the basis of the Christmas period, Christians sometimes complain that the 'original' Christian message is ignored at Christmas.

Such modern Christians do not know its history. Christian Churches have themselves led long and bitter campaigns against the observance of Christmas and in various times and places banned it completely. The religious content was always very small, with most celebrations and rituals being secular i. Major elements of Christmas are simply commercial inventions based on themes of nature, such as Christmas cards:. Examples from before of which the Jonathan King collection has , show an overwhelming concentration upon the natural world and upon jollity.

Modern-day Christmas frequently contains modern Christian elements. Not least of all, in English, the word 'Christmas' is the one we are all familiar with, moreso than Yule or Winter Solstice. Nativity stories are taken from the Christian tradition - even though the ideas of shepherds, wise men and the like were all originally pagan, the stories are now told with Christian overtones at Christmas.

There is no evidence or reason to believe that they actually occurred. Christians of the first few centuries did not know for certain where Jesus was born, where he died, or where he was buried. This fact is bemoaned by early Christian leaders. When they did celebrate Christmas, they generally did so in April and May. December 25 the day of Sol Invictus, the invincible sun was decided upon.

Not coincidentally, that is the day when the "pagan world celebrated the birth of their Sun Gods -- Egyptian Osiris, Greek Apollo and Bacchus, Chaldean Adonis, Persian Mithra -- when the Zodiacal sign of Virgo the sun is born of a virgin rose on the horizon.

Thus the ancient festival of the Winter Solstice, the pagan festival of the birth of the Sun, came to be adopted by the Christian Church as the nativity of Jesus, and was called Christmas" The reasons that the Christians annexed the Winter Solstice, and chose to celebrate Christmas in December instead of Spring, was that influential Roman religions celebrated the birth of the sun-of-the-sun on the Winter Solstice, and the first Christian emperor fused paganism and early Christianity, to create the Pauline Christianity that we know today Jeremiah says that bringing trees indoors and decorating is pagan, and Christians shouldn't do it.

The rhetoric that Christians have used against the celebration of Christmas pre-dates Christianity and originated with Jewish mores against the celebration of birthdays plus their wish to avoid pagan practices. In the book of Jeremiah, 7th century BCE15, it warns Jews and Christians not to "learn the ways" of pagans who bring trees into their homes and decorate them with silver and gold:. For the customs of the peoples are worthless; they cut a tree out of the forest, and a craftsman shapes it with his chisel.

They adorn it with silver and gold; they fasten it with hammer and nails so it will not totter. The first Christians were Jewish converts such as the Nazarenes and Ebionites. Such early Christians and Jews did not celebrate birthdays because they considered it a pagan practice. There are no Christian birthday celebrations in the Bible.

It was related, said early Christians, to pagan representation of sun cycles. For these reasons, Biblical fundamentalists do not celebrate birthdays, including Christmas. One such group is the Jehovah's Witnesses. Genesis ; Mark The suspicion of birthdays and the fact that there are no written first-hand records of Jesus or his life, mean that it has long been impossible to work out when he was born.

Modern Christian fundamentalists and evangelicals tell Christians not to celebrate Christmas. The Scottish reformers of the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, for example, claimed that the "Papists" Catholics had invented all the rites of Christmas so they abolished the lot of them. Despite a few desperate efforts upon both sides to find some scriptural indication of the true date of Christ's birth, a common ground was established almost at once; that as there was indeed no objective evidence of when Christ was born, the feast of the Nativity was wholly a creation of later authorities and supported by tradition and not the Bible.

A Parliamentary act repeated [the ban on Christmas] In New England, where celebrating Christmas was considered a criminal offense and remained forbidden until the second half of the nineteenth century Christians nowadays who proclaim that we should "remember the reason for the reason" are ignorant of their own religion and of the history of paganism.

These graphs are from data published by the Church of England which show the percent of the total population of England and Wales involved. However in they commented on Christmas attendance and state higher values This is very similar to the phenomenon by which in official polls, about twice as many say they are religious as actually are. Some low-brow newspaper outlets pushed the idea for many years that the 'political-correctness-gone-mad' idea of Winterval was officialdom's replacement for Christmas.

The sensationalist idea was that because Christmas has the word 'Christ' in it, then, modern secular governments and councils could not support it. So, the types of newspapers that peddle anti-foreigner positions took up the story with gusto.

The Guardian blogger Kevin Ascott reported that the Daily Mail repeated the myth the most between and , a total of 44 times. The Guardian even mentioned it a few times however, it also ran several articles debunking the myth and in , the Daily Mail eventually faced its critics and admitted that it was wrong.

It said: 'We stated in an article on 26 September that Christmas has been renamed in various places Winterval. Winterval was the collective name for a season of public events, both religious and secular, which took place in Birmingham in and We are happy to make clear that Winterval did not rename or replace Christmas.

The true source of the story is that of one event promoter who combined several winter events including Christmas into one Winterval event in order to simplify marketing. From the Guardian:. The myth was not just repeated, either. It was also gradually distorted to become ever more removed from the original misconception. What started as a myth that one council had rebranded or renamed Christmas became a pluralised, open-ended narrative that 'councils' and 'authorities' were rebranding or renaming Christmas as 'Winterval'.

It then mutated from a simple rebranding to a calculated attack on Christianity by 'atheists', 'Muslims', or the 'PC brigade' who feared offending 'other faiths' or 'ethnic minorities'. In one extreme example, the South Wales Echo claimed that Winterval was the result of 'virulent attacks on religion by atheists', which had led to 'new rules such as Christmas being renamed as 'Winterval'. In all, at least 15 articles directly claim that Christmas was renamed Winterval because of a fear of offending 'other faiths'.

At least a further 10 articles directly claim that Winterval was used to avoid offending 'ethnic minorities'. So now, thanks to perhaps one repetition too far, the Daily Mail has finally admitted that Winterval is a media fiction. But what impact will those few lines of correction have compared with the huge body of journalism that has been repeating it for so long as fact?

And, more important, will Melanie Phillips offer her own apology for repeating the myth? When I first heard the story, I thought 'ridiculous' and didn't believe it was true. I spent a few minutes researching it, and found out that I was right to doubt. Therefore, my world-view was not distorted. Journalists broadcast their opinions to others, and it is downright criminal that failures in basic fact-checking can be so endemic amongst them.

Christmas is a multicultural, multi-religious festival. It combines sun worship, polytheism, pagan nature religions who have venerated the natural cycle for many thousands of years, Christianity and other myths and traditions. When Christians complain it is too pagan, or when lay folk complain it is too religious, or when both groups complain it is too commercial, then they are all in need of realizing that Christmas is a commercial fusion of diverse nature-based festivals.

The date of the 25th accords with Sun Worship thousands of years old, the Christmas tree and some of the decorations are pagan, even the Nativity stories are originally pagan, Mithraistic, Roman and Christian. The main outstanding issue in the West is the Christian assertion that Christmas has something to do with the Christian figure of Christ or his birthday. These elements should be disclaimed. Firstly, the paganism inherent in Christmas, such as decorating trees, is warned against in the Bible Jeremiah Second, there are no Christian birthday celebrations in the Bible.

Thirdly, early Christians celebrated Christ's birthday in April or May - it was only changed to match with 25th of December, a major pagan holiday, by Emperor Constantine, in order to harmonize Christianity with paganism. It is certain that Christians should not attempt to celebrate Jesus' birthday, and they certainly shouldn't do so at Christmas. In addition to its rich history, Christmas has now become largely a secular holiday, a social festival based on the family, and a commercial enterprise.

Critics largely concentrate of the portions of Christmas they don't like, and claim that those portions ruin the rest of it. As long as no-one tries to "capture the flag" and exclude others, then there need be no modern conflict over the nature of Christmas. The non-religious can celebrate the commercial and social event, Christians can pretend Christmas has something to do with Christ, pagans can celebrate nature, and all can be happy. There are even alternative and well-known names for Christmas, such as Yuletide, which can be used according to taste.

Whether or not one choses to celebrate Christmas is mostly a matter of mood! The position that Islam has, or will have, in the world has a great deal to do with how the Muslims look at it, and to what extent they practise on its teachings. There was a time when Islam was running through every vein in a Muslim's body, and his actions were a living portrait of the glory and beauty of Islam, so the flag of Islam fluttering proudly in the sky, lifted by the winds of success.

The non-Muslims could not dare to question Islamic concepts, because living examples of Islamic perfection were in front of them. When the spirit of Islam started drifting away from the hearts of the Muslims, their bodies were no longer inclined to take all measures, undergo all hardships to practise their flawless religion. The new place for Islam was not a strong firm heart, but a dark, dusty corner in the human mind.

It would no longer be nurtured and cared for, upheld and protected by the warmth of love and devotion, but would now be probed and dissected by the cold, merciless and unfeeling instruments of intellect, theory and logic. It was no longer a deep feeling, a faith or way of life, but had become a set of rules, a doctrine or constitution like the ones made by man, to be amended and abridged at will.

Where did we go wrong? The answer is simple. We left the pattern of life of our dear Prophet sallallaahu alaiyhi wasssallam who spent his days and nights, his sweat and blood, trying to teach us, and turned to what others had to offer. If we want our respect, dignity and position of honor back, we must revert to that same pattern.

This is why the subject of the noble practices of Rasulullah sallallaahu alaiyhi wasssallam Sunnah, holds so much weight. This article has been compiled as a reminder of one of the very important Sunnahs the beard. We hope that the readers will not only read it carefully, but will make a concerned effort to convey the information to others.

Allah Ta'ala prefers people who sin and admit their mistakes, over those who do good deeds and behave in a conceited manner. It's unfortunate that today we disobey Allah and instead of admitting it, find some sort of excuse to justify our misdeeds, even if it means criticizing the Shariah or inventing our own guidelines for what is important in Islam and what isn't. Below are some common excuses and reasons people use to explain why they don't keep a beard. If you examine these with an objective, Islamic mind you will see how weak and baseless they really are.

The purpose of this article is not to condemn anyone or label anyone under a certain category but, when we say 'Islamic awareness' it means Islamic awareness in its entirety, not just what seems appealing. And that is what we are trying to do, so that each Muslim can at least know what is expected from him. The ability to practise comes from Allah.

One argument that is commonly heard is that the Qur'an is silent on the issue of the beard. To answer this we ask, "Where in the Qur'an does it say that we are only supposed to act on what is in the Qur'an, and reject the teachings of Rasulullah sallallaahu alaiyhi wasssallam? There are many commandments that are necessary for us to fulfill, but are not mentioned in the Qur'an.

Take for example the number of Raka'ats in each Salaat. They have been explained to us by Rasulullah sallallaahu alaiyhi wasssallam , yet there is no objection on the authenticity and importance of the matter.

To accept only some of Rasulullah's sallallaahu alaiyhi wasssallam instructions and reject others on the basis that they are not found in the Qur'an amounts to mocking his flawless teachings. Some people forsake keeping a beard, claiming that the reformation of the heart and purification of the soul is their first priority. They argue that it doesn't matter if one doesn't keep a beard, so long as the heart is clean.

This type of reasoning is a symptom of one's misunderstanding or ignorance of the basic Islamic fundamentals and concepts. The heart that is actually pure will lead its beholder to complete obedience of Allah and his Prophet sallallaahu alaiyhi wasssallam.

It defies logic to think that one can have a heart free of all corruptive elements and at the same time sin persistently, not wanting to adopt the noble appearance of the Holy Prophet sallallaahu alaiyhi wasssallam. Everyone will agree that a 'pure' heart will definitely contain the love of Allah.

Allah says that if you love me, you must follow the Prophet sallallaahu alaiyhi wasssallam. If you do so, your love for Allah will prove true, and only then will Allah love you in return. Therefore, it should be correct to say that love for Allah and the disobedience of his Prophet sallallaahu alaiyhi wasssallam are two opposite things, and can never be in a person's heart at the same time.

First of all, since intentionally omitting an obligatory commandment is a major sin, and growing a beard is obligatory as you will see ahead , it is wrong to say that shaving is a minor sin. It should be known that repetitively and persistently committing minor sins is itself a major sin.

That means that for each minute that this act continues, the sin will keep accumulating and will become more weightier than major acts of disobedience, as these latter sins do not progressively increase after the act is over. Some say that Rasulullah sallallaahu alaiyhi wasssallam kept a beard merely because it was an Arabic custom in those days. Since shaving is now regarded as the norm and the fashionable thing to do, if the Prophet sallallaahu alaiyhi wasssallam was present with us, he would do the same.

May Allah forgive the Muslims who utter such foolish words, and may he give them the opportunity to repent before they die. The Arabs, amongst other things, used to bury their daughters alive, answer the call of nature in public, braid their beards, perform tawaf naked around Ka'bah and indulge in gambling and drinking wine. The Prophet sallallaahu alaiyhi wasssallam shunned these acts and strictly prohibited his followers from them.

However, amongst his teachings is that keeping a beard is an act of Islam, a sign of Muslims, and he ordered the believers to grow their beards in opposition to the non-believers who were accustomed to cutting their beards. There is yet another group of people who, despite knowing the unlawfulness of shaving their beard, claim that if they were to keep beards they would lose esteem in the eyes of the people and no longer be looked at in the same way.

Before we respond, we should explain to these idealists what the true meaning of respect, dignity and honor is. We will mention that if someone only likes a person when they make their appearance in a certain way and despises them otherwise, that's not really liking the person. It's just getting them to look a certain way that appeals to them The same goes for respect. Respect is not gained on the material attributes an individual possesses, but is due to the abstract qualities within.

Secondly, Allah Ta'ala has clearly stated that the non-Muslims will never be satisfied with us until we get caught up in trying to please them - that we lose our own senses, moral values, and eventually become one of them. If that is what we yearn, then we are opening ourselves up to the wrath and displeasure of Allah. Thirdly, if we are looking to earn respect in the eyes of non- Muslims, or expecting to get respect because of them, we are in great deception. How is it possible to get respect from something or someone that Allah has made devoid of?

If we were to seek respect through a median other than that which Allah has bestowed us with respect, he would surely hurl us into the pits of disgrace. To justify the permissibility of shaving the beard by saying that it is 'merely' a Sunnah and shrug it off with unimportance is not correct. It should be clear that when we say "the beard is a Sunnah", it revolves around the fact that it was one of the many noble practices of Rasulullah sallallaahu alaiyhi wasssallam.

The Prophet sallallaahu alaiyhi wasssallam didn't just keep a beard, he also ordered the Muslims to grow them, and showed his anger and displeasure to those who shaved in his time. All the Sahaba R. All these elements serve to prove that it is obligatory Wajib for a Muslim to keep a beard. This fact alone is enough for someone to accept that the growing of a beard is a commandment and must be fulfilled.

However, for the benefit of our fellow Muslims and as a reference, we will list some facts. The fire- worshipers grow their mustaches long and cut their beards. Do the opposite: trim your mustaches and let your beards grow long. For those individuals who think there may be the proverbial difference of opinion among the scholars' on this matter, the following facts are noted.

The Maliki School of thought, as expressed in Kitabul Ibadah and Al-Lihya-fil Islam, says that to shave the beard is Haraam and to trim it in such a way that it changes ones natural and facial features is also Haraam. Sheikh-ul Islam Ibn Taimiyyah has also given the verdict of shaving the beard being Haraam, and has further listed all the Ahadith in which we have been commanded to oppose the actions of non-Muslims. He then comments that Shari'ah orders us to oppose them and if we adopt their appearances it will create the kind of love and friendship for them which is prohibited and which we should be trying to avoid.

Allama Qurtubi states that shaving the beard, pulling the hair out and shortening it are all not permissible. Imam Ibn Hazam Zaniri has quoted a consensus of the Ulama that to cut the mustache and lengthen the beard is Fardh. This is sufficient in proving a consensus of all the scholars of Deen, from the time of the Sahaba R. Now that we know it is Wajib, we should study the details of the length of the beard as determined by the Shari'ah.

Some individuals accept the concept of the beard, but form their own conclusions regarding the length, based on their own research. This is not an appropriate way to look at Shari'ah. Just as it is necessary to consult Ulama in matters pertaining to worship, marital affairs and beliefs, it is also imperative to refer to them for guidance in matters of Sunnah practices. Otherwise we will not be able to practise the Deen as a whole. We will end up taking what seems appropriate to us and discarding whatever we dislike.

This will result in a direct breach of Allah's orders. There is a common misconception that the requirement for an Islamic beard is that it must be visible from forty feet. If the beard fits this description it is in perfect order and there is no set length for the beard in Shari'ah. This view is no more than a combination of speculation and presumption based on opinion and has nothing to do with Islamic principles or any reliable source of information.

The Shari'ah has determined that the beard is one fist. How one fist? First of all, let us look at the words. The Prophet sallallaahu alaiyhi wasssallam used to tell the Ummah to grow their beards. Imam Nawawi states the Prophet sallallaahu alaiyhi wasssallam used four terms, at various occasions for this purpose. All of them mean "to fully elongate, lengthen". Once a disciple of Khabab R. He replied "By observing the movement of the blessed beard not chin of Rasulullah sallallaahu alaiyhi wasssallam we could tell that he was reciting.

Whenever the Prophet sallallaahu alaiyhi wasssallam ordered us to do something, his own actions defined the method of that act. This is the case in all matters of Deen, and the beard is no exception. For more details we look at how the Sahaba r.

Imam Bukhari R. Ibn Umar R. The same is narrated about Hazrat Umar r. This narration is also quoted in Imam Mohammed's Kitabul Athaar. No doubt remains that the Sahaba r. The beard of the Prophet sallallaahu alaiyhi wasssallam himself was so thick and wide that it covered his upper chest in length and width. Based on the evidence and facts from Hadith we can determine the real definition of the beard in Shari'ah. The scholars of Deen have unanimously come to the same conclusions mentioned previously.

The decision most accepted by the Shafi'ee scholars is to leave the beard as it is when it exceeds one fist's length. This is the ruling of the Hanafis as well. With the addition that if it is longer than one fist, it is desirable that it be cut back to the fist length. The Maliki scholars also say that if the beard grows exceptionally long, it should be trimmed down to one fist.

Although a great deal can be written on this subject, it is the writer's humble opinion that the information provided is sufficient for anyone desiring some general knowledge on the topic and willing to practise upon it. Even though cutting the beard is a practice of non-Muslims, you may be surprised to know that there are some distinguished individuals amongst them who disagree with the concept.

Below are the excerpts of a thesis written by an American, Dr. Charles Homer. I do not understand why people dread and tremble at the thought of having a beard. People grow hair on their heads, so why do they regard it as incorrect, defective and unacceptable to have hair on their face? When the hair fails to grow on the head, then baldness is regarded as a defect, and a cause of shame. Every effort is made to hide it. Yet, it is surprising that a man will daily remove hair from his face, depriving himself from that which is a most evident sign of manhood, without a bit of shame.

His survival and safety too are tied to this brave appearance. These are the only hairs that differentiate the males from the females. The hair in all the other parts of the body are common between the male and female. Women, deep in their consciences, are more appreciative of men with beards and mustaches. Profoundly, they prefer a male with a beard to the ones without this manly facial feature.

The only reason for this is that they have bound themselves to follow unrealistic friends and the latest fashion in dress and, unfortunately, these days the beard and mustache are out of fashion. A little bit of hair before the nostrils and the mouth acts as a filter against harmful dust and germs entering the nose and the mouth.

A lengthy and thick beard protects the throat from colds. A person with a beard always upholds the honor of the beard that is demanded from him. It gives him that prestige and position that is befitting only for males. God had created the beard and the mustache for the male adult to adorn his face with them. Whoever laughs and mocks at those with beards is in fact laughing and mocking Jesus, because Jesus had a heard.

Dr Homer's statement speaks for itself and needs no explanation, but his concluding words are a real eye-opener for us Muslims. After nineteen centuries have passed he still honours his Prophet Hazrat Isa AS so much that he classifies that person who laughs at the beard as having directly insulted Hazrat Isa AS , because it was his noble practice to keep a beard.

For the Muslims who claim to have true love for Rasulullah sallallaahu alaiyhi wasssallam but fall short of following in his footsteps, it is time to face up to the reality and to accept their responsibilities. We ask Allah to forgive us all our shortcomings in obeying Him and His Prophet sallallaahu alaiyhi wasssallam and to ask Him to grant us the ability to truly repent for our mistakes and live a life that pleases Him.

This photograph was made by my very good friend David Griffith a few months after we had visited him in April of that year. Specifically, this was taken at the pickled quail egg eating contest at a chili cook off festival in San Marcos Texas in David was gracious enough to let me post this. I've always liked this shot, mainly for it's suggestion of a kind of righteous camaraderie that can exist among photographers in the act of photography.

Back in those days he David and I and some others in our circle would often go to events, or just areas, together and photograph. And whether or not we got "something good" we almost always had big fun in the process. The experience had a sort of team sport aspect to it. These days I rarely shoot with another photographer.

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Four days later, four Palestinian fedayeen hijacked the ship and took the passengers and crew hostage. Klinghoffer was shot in the head, his body and wheelchair thrown overboard. His murder became a flashpoint in the struggle between Israelis and Arabs, giving Americans a horrifying preview of terrorism hitting home. This geopolitical thriller is filled with the tension wrought by terrorism and its repercussions today. Sylvie Snow knows the pressures of expectations. A woman is supposed to work hard, but never be tired; age gracefully, but always be beautiful; fix the family problems, but always be carefree.

But days turn into weeks, and Sylvie slips slowly into a nightmare. As the bar mitzvah nears, the family must face the void within themselves. When Kerrie sees the woman who destroyed her life on television 18 years later, a fire ignites inside her. The stakes are high. The risks are perilous. Jordana Pierson appears to have it all: wealth, glamour, a handsome husband, and a thriving wedding concierge business. Her record is spotless. Her business is flourishing.

No one knows the truth about her and the dark shadows of her past. No one, that is, except Kerrie. Pretty Revenge is a riveting novel bursting with twists, turns, and suspenseful exploration of how far someone will go for vengeance. Women all over the world came forward with their own traumatic stories about the prominent Hollywood producer.

She Said tells a thrilling story about the power of truth, with shocking new information from hidden sources. Kantor and Twohey describe the consequences reporting for the MeToo movement and journeys of the women who spoke up—for the sake of other women, for future generations, and for themselves. They embarked on a path to uncover the truth. Despite resistance, Brickman was determined to continue extracting evidence hidden in archives. After five years of identifying, interviewing, and recording the victims, Brickman was finally permitted to present his documentary to Emory officials and ask for redemption for the stain they had made.

As a result, he was presented with the Emory University Maker of History Award for his journalistic excellence in exposing a long history of anti-Semitism in the Emory University dental school. Here, she shares her own spiritual journey and expression of her proud Jewish identity. Through it all, she has been an active feminist and a champion for civil and human rights and equality for all. This is her story. Raised on a cotton farm in small town, Georgia with no money or connections, Pat Mitchell grew to become a consummate media game-changer.

She was the first female president of PBS and of CNN productions and a visionary, award-winning TV and film producer, fully engaged on the front lines of cultural change. What makes Mitchell dangerous is her lifelong insistence on redefining power on her terms, and in leveraging that power to manifest a better world. In Becoming a Dangerous Woman, she shares her unprecedented rise in media and global affairs. Mitchell takes us on a lively journey, sharing intimate anecdotes about navigating the power paradigms of Washington, DC and Hollywood, traveling to war zones, pressing Fidel Castro to make a historic admission about the Cold War, and matching wits with Ted Turner.

Lynn recounts her experiences in the modern dating scene with honesty and humor. Through the ups and downs of her dating adventures, she never loses her manners, her wit, or her optimism. Her hilarious memoir is what happens when Sex and the City meets Grace and Frankie! Robyn Spizman, an award-winning, New York Times bestselling author, speaker, and veteran media personality, has spent her career finding ways to make others happy with gifts and actions.

Observing how the smallest compliment or remark of appreciation can transform an awkward moment into one of connection and joy, she set out to let others know we are paying attention, we care, and we appreciate them. Global icons such as Nelson Mandela and Audrey Hepburn modeled the influence that Anne Frank had on shaping their own lives. Walnes Perry shares new insights into the real Anne Frank, from those who actually knew her.

Meg Waite Clayton conjures her best novel yet with a pre-World War II story centering on the Kindertransports that carried thousands of children out of Nazi-occupied Europe and one brave woman who helped them escape. There is hope when a member of the Dutch resistance risks her life smuggling Jewish children out of Nazi Germany. Please join Marlene and Abe Besser and Rabbi Brian Glusman at the Besser Holocaust Memorial Garden as we light the torches and pay tribute to those who lost their lives during one of the most horrific nights in Jewish history.

In early , year-old Renia Spiegel wrote the first entry in her diary. With poignant and thoughtful poetry, she writes of her mundane school life in Poland, daily drama with friends, falling in love with her boyfriend Zygmund, and the agony of missing her mother, separated by bombs and invading armies. When Renia was sent to the ghetto, Zygmund is able to smuggle her out to hide with his parents.

The diary ends in July , with an entry by Zygmund after Renia is murdered by the Gestapo. With this extraordinary historical document, Renia Spiegel survives through the beauty of her words and the efforts of those who loved her and preserved her legacy. Berlin, The Gestapo arrested Bert Lewyn Bev's father-in-law and his parents, sending the latter to their deaths and Bert to work in a factory making guns for the Nazi war effort.

Bert goes underground and finds shelter with compassionate civilians, people who find his skills useful, and in cellars of bombed-out buildings. Without proper identity papers, he survives as a hunted Jew in the flames and terror of Nazi Berlin in part by successfully mimicking non-Jews, even masquerading as an SS officer. But the Gestapo are hot on his trail.

By , only 3, remained alive. Bert was one of the few, and his thrilling memoir offers an unparalleled depiction of the life of a runaway Jew caught in the heart of the Nazi empire. A designer, raconteur, author, model, and legendary New York style icon-about-town, Tziporah Tzippy has been the favorite subject of acclaimed photographers and artists. Tzippy has spent a lifetime collecting remarkable clothes, hats, and accessories, assembling them into outfits she shares with the world from the seat of the shiny bike she rides all over Manhattan.

In her award-winning one-woman stage show, Tzippy tells the remarkable story of her parents, Hungarian Jews who survived the Holocaust and fled to Israel, then New York. The performance showcases her legendary wardrobe of rare vintage and designer clothes that helped Tzippy find her way into many aspects of the fashion and style industries.

Using case histories and personal experiences, Bharara shows the thought process required to best achieve truth and justice in our society. Bharara uses anecdotes to illustrate the realities of the legal system, and the consequences of both action and inaction. She finds her way to a renowned rabbi, where his daughter, Ettie, offers hope of salvation by creating a mystical Jewish creature named Ava, who is sworn to protect Lea.

Lea and Ava travel from Paris, where Lea meets her soulmate, to a convent in western France known for its silver roses; from a school in a mountaintop village where three thousand Jews were saved. How much can one person sacrifice for love?

In a world where evil can be found at every turn, we meet remarkable characters that take us on a stunning journey of loss and resistance, the fantastical and the mortal, in a place where all roads lead past the Angel of Death and love is never ending. But Jon Dorenbos says that what he does is not who he is.

He is someone forced, at 12 years old, to turn tragedy to triumph. In an instant, his life had shattered. He was an orphan, thrust into foster care. Jon struggled, but he discovered an unlikely escape performing magic tricks. Then came football, which provided a release for all his pent-up anger. Magic and football saved him, leading to 14 NFL seasons on the gridiron and raucous sleight-of-hand performances to packed houses across the globe.

In , after being traded to the New Orleans Saints, Jon was diagnosed with a life-threatening heart condition. He had a choice: break down or bounce back. In Life Is Magic, Dorenbos tells a poignant and powerful story as a charismatic and optimistic man who has overcome life-or-death challenges with grace, persistence, a childlike sense of wonder The glamour and glitz take their minds off their troubled marriage—until June , when the German army sweeps into Paris, setting up headquarters at the Ritz.

But one secret shared between Blanche and Claude threatens to imperil both of their lives and to bring down the legendary Ritz. Things had never been easy between Ava Fisher and her estranged mother, Ilse. Where had Ilse been during the war?

Then the Nuremburg Laws force Renate to confront a long-buried past, and a catastrophic betrayal is set in motion. An unflinching exploration of Nazi Germany and its legacy, Wunderland is a powerful portrait of an unspeakable crime and a page-turning contemplation of womanhood, wartime, and just how far we might go in order to belong.

But the true stories captured in The Plaza also include dark, hidden secrets, including the coldblooded murder perpetrated by construction workers in charge of building the hotel and how Donald J. Trump came to be the only owner to ever bankrupt the Plaza. In this definitive history, award-winning journalist Julie Satow pulls back the curtain on one vaunted New York City address that has become synonymous with wealth, scandal, opportunity, and tragedy.

With wit and insight, Shawn Levy recounts the wild revelries and scandalous liaisons, the creative breakthroughs and marital breakdowns, the births and deaths that the chateau has been a party to. In her much-anticipated novel, New York Times bestselling author of Bee Season, Myla Goldberg, tells a compelling story about a photographer grappling with ambition and motherhood, a balancing act familiar to women of every generation.

Feast Your Eyes, framed as the catalogue notes from a photography show at the Museum of Modern Art, tells the life story of Lillian Preston. When a small gallery exhibits partially nude photographs of Lillian and her daughter, Lillian is arrested, thrust into the national spotlight, and targeted with an obscenity charge.

Dinner is served with a side of delicious gossip, including which North Grove residents were caught with their pants down on Ashley Madison after the secret online dating site for married and committed couples was hacked. Millions of cheaters were exposed—including Gabe. Humiliated, Sophie jumps into the unknown and flees to France to meet up with her teenage daughter who is studying abroad and nursing her own heartbreak. There, for the first time in a long time, Sophie acknowledges her own desires, and rediscovers her essence with painful honesty and humor, reawakening both her sensuality and ambitions as a sculptor.

Dawn and Cher have dedicated time and effort to strengthen their own unique bond while also bringing a fresh spin on what it takes to create a truly rewarding relationship. Daughters will get practical advice on everything from learning how to forgive and rebuild a relationship to communicating effectively despite the generation gap. The duo dishes secrets to cultivating a lifelong best mother-daughter friendship. Seating is limited so please reserve your tickets early.

This event is not included with the Series Pass or certain Patron levels. These recipes appeal to those looking to recreate their favorite dishes at home and the gorgeous photos, informative headnotes, and market profiles will fascinate anyone who values the context of cultural history.

He returns to the Book Festival stage with his latest book, a curated collection of his favorite Jewish cartoons. In his foreword to this entertaining collection, Mankoff shows how his Jewish heritage helped him to become a successful cartoonist, examines the place of cartoons in the vibrant history of Jewish humor, and plumbs Jewish thought, wisdom, and schtick for humorous insights.

Diagnosed with cerebral palsy as a child, Kyle Pease had grown up supporting his athlete brothers, Brent and Evan, from the sidelines. From rolling his wheelchair in Yosemite National Park to zipping down Colorado snow slopes, there was never a dull moment with the Pease brothers. Where there was a wheel, there was a way to adventure. In this memoir that interweaves both their perspectives, Kyle and Brent recount the experiences that shaped the strength, tenacity, and undying bond that has resonated between them since childhood, culminating with participating in the IRONMAN World Championship in Kona, Hawaii.

Andy Lipman, an Atlantan who has lived with cystic fibrosis CF since birth, is walking proof that you can do anything you set your mind to. In his fourth book about CF, Andy chronicles the lives of 50 warriors living and fighting the disease. Their stories are tales of those who have beaten the odds by working hard to make their own dreams come true. Lipman also continues to dedicate his life to finding a cure for this terminal disease.

He and his family founded the Wish for Wendy Foundation in memory of his older sister, who died from CF after only 16 days of life. Kitty Milton and her husband are both from families considered the backbone of the country. While they summer on their island in Maine, anchored as they are to the way things have always been, the winds of change are beginning to stir.

When her mother dies, Evie digs into her family history, finding a story as unsettling as it is inescapable, threatening the foundation of the Milton family myth. Moving through three generations and back and forth in time, The Guest Book asks how we remember and what we choose to forget. It shows the untold secrets we inherit and pass on, unknowingly echoing our parents and grandparents.

From the New York Times bestselling author of The Light We Lost comes a tender and moving novel about a woman at a crossroads, caught between the love of two men. Nina Gregory has always been a good daughter. And Tim—her devoted boyfriend and best friend since childhood—feels the same.

As her world falls apart, Nina begins to see the men in her life in a new light. Soon Nina finds herself caught between the world she loves and a passion that could upend everything. Abby Stein was raised in a Hasidic Jewish community in Brooklyn, isolated in a culture that lives according to the laws and practices of 18th century Eastern Europe, speaking only Yiddish and Hebrew and shunning modern life. He was the first son in a dynastic rabbinical family, poised to become a leader of the next generation of Hasidic Jews.

Finally, she orchestrated a personal exodus from ultra-Orthodox manhood to mainstream femininity-a radical choice that forced her to leave her home, her family, her way of life. Becoming Eve is a powerful coming out story about an unexpected outspoken voice for gender freedom. In Drive-Thru Dreams, Adam Chandler explores the inseparable link between fast food and American life for the past century. But, in unexpected ways, fast food is also deeply personal and emblematic of a larger-than-life image of America.

With wit and nuance, Chandler reveals the complexities of this industry through heartfelt anecdotes and fascinating trivia as well as interviews with fans, executives, and workers. Step right up! The Amusement Park is a rich, anecdotal history beginning years ago with the pleasure gardens of Europe and ends with the most elaborate modern parks in the world. This is a full-throttle celebration of the rides—marvels of engineering and heart-stopping thrills.

Experience the electrifying story of amusement parks and meet the colorful, sometimes criminal, characters responsible for their enchanting charms. The massacre at Tree of Life in Pittsburgh came as a total shock. But to those who have been paying attention, it was only a more violent, extreme expression of the broader trend that has been sweeping Europe for the past two decades.

An ancient hatred increasingly allowed into modern political discussion, anti-Semitism has been migrating toward the mainstream in dangerous ways, amplified by social media and a threatening culture of conspiracy. This timely book is an unnerving reminder that Jews must never lose their hard won instinct for danger, and a powerful case for renewing Jewish and liberal values to guide us through uncertainty.

A forgotten, dark chapter of American history with implications for the current day, The Guarded Gate tells the story of the scientists who argued that certain nationalities were inherently inferior, providing the intellectual justification for the harshest immigration law in American history. These upper-class eugenic arguments helped keep hundreds of thousands of Jews, Italians, and other unwanted groups out of the US for more than 40 years. This book is the complete story from the anti-immigrant campaign beginning in Okrent brings to life the rich cast of characters from this time.

The Guarded Gate is an important, insightful tale that painstakingly connects the American eugenicists to the rise of Nazism and shows how their beliefs found fertile soil in the minds of citizens and leaders both here and abroad. Told in vivid detail by longtime Atlanta sports writer I. Rosenberg, alongside the stunning photography of the Atlanta United staff, this is the story of the boys in red, black, and gold who captured the heart of a city and took the soccer world by storm.

Get inside the minds of Arthur Blank, Darren Eales, Carlos Bocanegra, and so many others who played a part in turning the dream of a top tier soccer franchise in the South into reality as they share what went into the process—from the hiring of key personnel to the creation of the Five Stripes brand—and all the challenges and milestones along the way. Ambassador Haley will not be signing books this evening, and books will not be pre-signed. A revealing, dramatic, deeply personal book about the most significant events of our time, written by the former United States Ambassador to the United Nations.

Nikki R. In this book, Haley offers a first-hand perspective on major national and international matters, as well as a behind-the-scenes account of her tenure in the Trump administration. This book reveals a woman who can hold her own—and better—in domestic and international power politics, a diplomat who is unafraid to take a principled stand even when it is unpopular, and a leader who seeks to bring Americans together in divisive times.

She previously served as Governor of South Carolina from to She and her husband, Michael, an entrepreneur and combat veteran in the South Carolina Army National Guard, have two children. Secretary Clinton and Chelsea Clinton will not be signing books this evening, and books will not be pre-signed. In Conversation with Dr. Join Secretary Hillary Rodham Clinton and Chelsea Clinton as they celebrate the women who have inspired them throughout their lives. The Book of Gutsy Women: Favorite Stories of Courage and Resilience is the first book that Secretary Clinton and Chelsea have written together, and they are excited to welcome readers into a conversation they began having when Chelsea was a little girl.

Join them as they discuss the women throughout history who have had the courage to stand up to the status quo, ask hard questions, and get the job done. Inspired by women whose tenacity blazed the trail, the two global leaders lay out a vision for how these stories of persistence can galvanize women and men, boys and girls around the world. Writers like Rachel Carson and Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, historian Mary Beard, who used wit to open doors that were once closed, and activists like Harriet Tubman and Malala Yousafzai, who looked fear in the face and persevered.

And so many more. This groundbreaking celebration of gutsiness is a call to action — not just for women, but for all of us, especially now. Finishing it is going to take all of us standing shoulder to shoulder, across the generations, across genders. This is not a moment for anyone to leave the fight, or sit on the sidelines, waiting for the perfect moment to join. Hillary Rodham Clinton is the first woman in US history to become the presidential nominee of a major political party.

She served as the 67th Secretary of State after nearly four decades in public service advocating on behalf of children and families as an attorney, First Lady, and US Senator. She is a wife, mother, and grandmother. Chelsea Clinton is a champion for girls and women through her advocacy, writing, and work at the Clinton Foundation. She lives in New York City with her husband, their children, and their dog.

Fangruida, born in Shanghai in , studied early in Europe and the United States. Scientist, philosopher, thinker, sociologist, anthropologist, writer, dramatist, poet. His main contribution is in the field of natural sciences, superconvex law, high-speed heavy non-chemical fuel rockets and so on. High poly-compound new natural structuralist philosophy, new natural rational structuralism and new social rational structuralism and so on. In addition, Fang Ruida in early and middle and late years, but also created a lot of literary and artistic works, worthy of the classic.

Some published a fragment of the work. Fang Ruida engaged in busy natural science research while also spare time to create some literary works, such as painting "fields", poetry and poetry, and then there are many literary and artistic works circulating in the world, the script and so on.

Due to space limitations and copyright protection, only representative classic original works can be simply disclosed for readers at home and abroad to enjoy. Although simple, attentive readers can still look out for it. Believe that with the passage of time, these plays or works will be digged out, show in front of the world. Here, mainly to provide directory, script outline, for research. As for the full appreciation, you need more diction, the script includes English, French, Russian, Spanish, Arabic, Chinese and so on.

His works are mostly romantic and passionate, natural, warm and warm, pure and natural, showing life beauty and natural beauty. He has lived and studied in other countries for many years and has a wide range of experience. Therefore, he has such an idea. For everyone to enjoy. Fang Ruida literary works are not many handed down in the world, his life's main energy is the field of natural sciences and philosophy and social sciences, religion, humanities, which accounted for the vast majority of his life, literary creation, script, novels There are not many poems, paintings, music, etc.

Therefore, the selection of compilation of works mostly clips and the like, mainly for everyone to read the product reading. Of course, the selected works are basically famous play. Papers, foreign million words, such as trilogy and the like, masterpieces, but famous masterpiece is not all long masterpiece, the key lies in the content and value of the work.

This is the basic purpose of editors, a few words to readers. Fly in the ointment, very sorry. As for the full compilation of the full text of the publication is what happened after the current can only provide these, please forgive me. After editing later made. Author's signature: Smith fangruida was originally published under the pseudonym Smith.

English pen name, when Fang Rui Da studying abroad and so on, so the pen name sometimes used this name. In addition, there are other pen names, such as: Mardin, Schmidt, etc. Born in Shanghai on May 13, , the world famous scientists, philosophers, Fang Ruida, Fang Ruida, Fang Ruida, Fang Ruida, Ruida-Fang ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, [ Name: Smith Frd-Smith English name, Fang Ruida used briefly in Europe and other places, including writing, social networking, and later gradually use the present name.

May 13 Born in Shanghai, world famous scientist, philosopher, thinker, economist, writer, playwright, religious scientist, sociologist, anthropologist, painter, composer, poet, inventor, astronaut scientist, cosmos Scientist. In the spring of the year, just a few youth entrepreneurs in the drama international drama series started their entrepreneurial life and worked hard all over the world. After a series of hardships and failures, they started a new exploration.

Their lives, work, family, love, their happiness, laughter, pain and confusion, and finally in the stormy sea and finally out of a new world, has achieved fruitful. The story takes place in the late 21st century, investors, business tycoons, financiers. Several young people elated out of the school gate. Secondary schools have been graduated, with a complex joyful mood, laughing and walking in the fields. The sun has just set off, the birds fly, a golden field.

Classmate friend,. The twilight of the setting sun shines upon the fields of the earth, setting off their smiling faces. Yan Yin: I still my old idea, go to college chant. Lan Lan: Expansion of enrollment this year, Beijing and Shanghai should expand enrollment. Minmin: Of course, this is good news, it is worth everyone to celebrate.

Lanlan: Tomorrow, let's get together to celebrate this great news. Yan Yin: That is, that is. Hid them in gloomy caves, and o'er them set The mass of lofty mountains ; and a king Gave them, who, by a compact sure, might know When to restrain and when to loose the reins. The father of the gods and king of men Grants to assuage and lift with winds the waves..

A race now sails upon the Tyrrhene Sea ss Hostile to me, — Ilium to Italy Transporting, and their conquered household gods. Book I. Twice seven nymphs are mine ; The fairest, Deiopea, will I give 91 To thee in wedlock firm, to be thine own.

And, for such service, pass her years with thee. And make thee father of a lovely race. Thou givest me whatever sovereignty I hold, — my sceptre, and the favor of Jove, And to recline at banquets of the gods. And all the power I hold o'er clouds and storms.

Then forth the winds, like some great marching host. Vent being given, rush turbulent, and blow In whirling storm abroad upon the lands : Down pressing on the sea from lowest depths Upturned, Eurus and Notus all in one Blowing, and Africus with raiay squalls.

Dense on the vast waves rolling to the shore. Then follow clamoring shouts of men, and noise no Of whistling cordage. On a sudden, clouds Snatch from the Trojans all the light of day And the great sky. Black night lies on the sea. The thunder rolls, the incessant lightnings flash; And to the crews all bodes a present death. Pouring my warm life out beneath thy hand? So many corpses of brave heroes slain! On hidden rocks three ships the south-wind hurls, — Rocks by the Italian sailors Altars called ; A vast ridge on a level with the sea.

Three others by the east-wind from the deep ho Are driven upon the quicksands and the shoals, — Dreadful to see, — upon the shallows dashed. And girt around by drifting heaps of sand. One, that conveyed the Lycians, and that bore Faithful Orontes, there, before his eyes, us A huge sea from above strikes on the stern.

Dashing the pilot headlong on the waves. Three times the surges whirl the ship around. Now the strong ship of Ilioneus, now Of brave Achates, and the barks that bore Abas, and old Aletes, are o'erwhelmed. And all their yawning sides with loosened joints 'ss Drink in the bitter drench.

Meanwhile, below, Neptune was conscious of the sea disturbed With loud uproar, and of the tempest sent. And the calm deeps convulsed. Profoundly moved. He gazes up, and lifts his placid head i6o Above the waves ; Eneas' scattered fleet O'er all the ocean sees; the Trojan hosts Oppressed with waves and the down-rushing sky. And not to Juno's brother were unknown Her arts and anger. Then to him he calls Eurus and Zephyrus, and' thus he speaks : — " Can such reliance on your birth be yours, O Winds, that now, without authority Of mine, ye dare to mingle heaven and earth In discord, and such mountain waves upraise?

Not thus shall ye escape your next offence. But given to me, by fate. The savage rocks He holds, O Eurus, your abiding-place. Let tEoIus boast his power within those halls. And reign in the pent prison of the winds! With him Cymothoe and Triton bend With all their force, and from the jagged rocks Push off the ships : with trident he himself Upheaves them, and lays open the vast shoals, iSs And smooths the deep, as with light wheels he glides Along the surface of the waves.

As when Sedition rises in a multitude. And the base mob is raging with fierce minds. And flying, to his swift car gives the reins. Within a deep recess there is a place Where with its jutting sides an island forms A port, by which the rolling ocean waves Are broken, and divide in lesser curves. Above, a wall, with trembling foliage stands, O'ershadowed by a dark and gloomy grove; And underneath the opposing front, a cave no Amid the hanging cliffs is seen.

Within Are pleasant springs, and seats of natural rock, A dwelling for the nymphs. No cable here. Nor any anchor holds with crooked fluke The weary ships. And here, with a great longing for the land. The Trojans disembark, and gain the beach Desired ; and drenched and dripping with the brine.

They stretch their weary limbs upon the shore. Achates struck a spark. And caught the fire in leaves ; and round about Dry fuel piled, and swiftly fanned the flame. They bring forth then their corn, by water spoiled, Book I. Meanwhile iEneas climbs upon a cliiF, And far out on the ocean strains his eyes.

No sail in sight. Three stags Upon the shore, straying about, he sees ; And following these the whole herd comes behind, 23s And browses all along the valleys. Here He stopped and seized his bow and arrows swift. Which arms the trusty Achates bore. Nor does the victor stop till he has felled Seven huge beasts, the number of his ships ; Then to the port returning, parts the prey hs Among his comrades.

And the wines with which The good Acestes had filled full their casks. On the Trinacrian shore, when leaving him. These he divides among them ; and with words Of comfort thus consoles their sorrowing hearts : — as" " O friends, who greater sufferings still have borne, For not unknown to us are former griefs, An end also to these the deity Will give. You have approached the furious rage Of Scylla, and her hoarse resounding cliffs. Recall your courage ; banish gloomy fears.

Some day perhaps the memory of these things Shall yield delight. Through various accidents. Through many a strait of fortune, we are bound For Latium, where our fates point out to us A quiet resting-place. There 't is decreed Troy's kingdom shall arise again. Be firm. And keep vour hearts in hope of brighter days. And pressed his heavy trouble down. But they Busy themselves about their captured game.

And preparations for approaching feasts. And fix the quivering limbs upon the spits. Others set brazen caldrons on the sand. And tend the fires beneath ; then they refresh Their strength with food, and, stretched upon the grass, ays With the old wine and juicy meat are filled.

Hunger appeased, and dishes then removed. In long discourse about their comrades lost They make conjectures, between hope and fear. Uncertain if they still may be alive, iSo Or have suffered death, nor hear when they are called. And now of Amycus, and Gyas strong, And strong Cloanthus. Now there was an end At length ; when Jove from his ethereal heights Upon the sail-winged ocean looking down, And the wide lands, and shores, and nations spread Beneath, stood on the pinnacle of heaven.

And on the realm of Lybia fixed his eyes. Her brilliant eyes suffused with tears : " O thou Who rulest over men and gods with sway Eternal, — terrible with lightnings! And its sad ruin, weighing adverse fates With fates. But now the same mischance pursues These men long driven by calamities.

Yet he here Founded the walls of Padua, and built The Trojan seats, and to the people gave 3" A name, and there affixed the arms of Troy. Now, laid at rest, he sleeps in placid peace. But we, thy offspring, to whom thou dost give The promise of the palaces of heaven, — Our ships are lost, — ah bitter woe!

And driven far from the Italian shores. Is this the reward of filial piety? And dost thou thus restore our sceptred sway? Smiling, his daughter fondly kissed, and spake : — " Spare thy fears, Cytherea, for unmoved Thy people's fates remain for thee ; and thou Shalt see Lavinium and its promised walls, And to the stars of heaven shalt bear sublime The noble-souled Tineas ; nor do I turn From my intent.

And shall subdue the fierce and hostile tribes. And give them laws, and manners, and walled towns. Till the third summer shall have seen him king 34s In Latium, and three winters shall have passed After the Rutuli have been subdued. But the young boy Ascanius, unto whom The name lulus now is added he Ilus was called, while stood the Ilian realm , — Thirty great circles of revolving months Shall in his reign comple. Here shall reign Kings of Hectorean race, three hundred years, 35s Till Ilia, a priestess and a qu'een.

Pregnant by Mars, has given birth to twins. Then, in the tawny shelter of a wolf. Nor shall I to them Set bounds or seasons. Empire without end Book I. I have given. The toga'd nation. Such is my decree. An age is coming in the gliding years. When the descendants of Assaracus Phthia and famed Mycenae shall subdue. And conquered Argos. Of illustrious, birth The Trojan Caesar shall be born, whoTe "sway The ocean, and whose fame the stars alone Shall limit ; — Julius called, — a name derived 37; From great lulus.

Free from all thy cares,. The dreadful gates of war Will then be shut with iron bolts and bars. The wicked Furor on his cruel arms. Bound with a hundred brazen knots behind, Will sit within, and rage with bloody mouth. Through the vast air with rowing wings he flies. And quickly alighted on the Lybian coasts. Beneath a hollovi: rock m With overhanging woods he hid his fleet.

Shut in around by trees and gloomy shades. Then forth he goes, accompanied alone By Achates ; in his hand two broad-tipped spears. To him then, in the middle of a wood. Appeared his mother, with a virgin. Bare to the knee she stood. Her flowing robe was gathered in a knot. Thy voice, are not a mortal's ; surely then A goddess, — Phoebus' sister, or a nymph.

O, be propitious! On what shores, we are cast; for ignorant Alike of men and places here we stray, 20 The u! Driven hither by the winds and by the waves ; And on thy altars many victims slain 43s We '11 ofFer thee! It is the custom of the Tyrian maids To bear the quiver, and about the leg To bind the purple buskin. Tyrians here Thou seest, — Agenor's city, and the realm Of Carthage, on the Lybian land, — a race Untamable in war. Dido from Tyre The kingdom rules, who from her brother fled.

Long is the story of her wrongs, and long 44s Its windings ; but the chief events I '11 tell. Sychasus was her spouse, of all Phoenicians The wealthiest in lands, and greatly loved By her, unhappy. But Pygmalion, Her brother, ruled in Tyre ; a monster he Of crime. A feud arose between the two. Regardless of his sister's wedded love. He, blind with lust of gold, in secrecy 4ss The unguarded husband at the altar slew. Long he concealed the crime, and wickedly Book I. But in her sleep The ghost of her unburied husband came, 4«o Lifting a visage marvellously pale ; And showed the cruel altars, and laid bare The breast the dagger pierced, uncovering all The hidden crimes of his detested house ; And counselled her to leave the land, and fly ; And, for her journey's aid, disclosed to her Much ancient treasure hidden in the earth.

An unknown heap of silver and of gold. Thus moved. Dido prepared for flight, and chose Companions. They seized upon some ships, ready by chance. And loaded them with treasure; and the wealth Of covetous Pygmalion was conveyed Away across the sea. A woman led 47s The enterprise. From what shores do ye come? And whither are ye going? Italia, my ancestral land. And the race sprung from Jove supreme, I seek.

Scarce seven of these, shattered by storms, are saved. And I, unknown and needy, traverse here The Lybian deserts, banished from the shores Of Europe, and of Asia — " But no more Did Venus suffer of her son's complaint. But in the middle of his grief, thus spoke : — Book I.

Continue now thy course, and hence proceed Toward the royal palace of the queen. Which, hut a moment since, Jove's eagle scared, s'S And gliding from on high, drove through the air. Now in long line either on ea. Or, looking down, see their companions lit.

S they, returning, sport with whistling wings. Clustered together with their joyful cries, Just so thy ships and thy brave youths e'en now Are either safe in port, or sailing in. Go then, and, as thy path leads, bend thy steps. All the true goddess was revealed. But he,. When now he knew his mother as she fled. With airy images? Why not join hand With hand, and real language hear and speak? But Venus with a mist Obscured them, walking, and around their forms Wove a thick veil, lest any should perceive Or harm them, or delay, or seek to know Why they had come.

But she herself on high Her way to Paphos took, and saw again With joy her seats, and saw her temples, where A hundred altars stand, and glow with sweet Sabaean incense, and with fresh-culled flowers. Following their pathway then they hastened on And now a hill ascended, which o'erlooked The city and its towers. Some choose a spot For building, and a furrow trace around. And forms of law and magistrates they make. And choose a reverend senate. Others here Are scooping docks ; and others still lay down The large foundations of a theatre.

And cut huge columns from the quarried rocks. The lofty ornaments for future scenes. As in the early summer when the bees Toil in the sunshine through the flowery fields,. Distending them with nectar sweet ; or take The loads of those that come ; or forming lines. Expel the lazy drones ; the work grows warm, 56s And all the honey smells of fragrant thyme.

First to this place, by waves and tempest tossed. The Carthaginians from the earth dug up 57s An omen royal Juno had foretold That they shoiild find, a noble horse's head ; Thus intimating that this race would shine. Famous in war, and furnished with supplies. For ages. Here the great Sidonian queen A temple built to Juno, rich in gifts. And in the presence of the goddess blessed. A brazen threshold rose above the steps. With brazen posts connecting, and the hinge Creaked upon brazen doors.

For while he waits The coming of the queen, and looks around At every object in the spacious temple. And on the city's fortune wondering. And skill and labor of the artisans. The Atridffi there he sees. And Priam, and Achilles, foe to both. Achates, and what land on earth Is not replete with stories of our woes? And mortal sufferings move their thoughts and tears. Banish all fear!

This fame some safety brings. The Phrygians there, and crested Achilles urged His chariot on. Here Troilus he sees, the unhappy youth Flying, his shield lost, in unequal fight Met by Achilles ; now by his horses whirled. Meanwhile the Trojan women to the shrine Of unpropitious Pallas go, with hair Unbound, wearing the peplus, suppliant all And sad, and beat their breasts.

Three times Achilles round the walls of Troy Had dragged the lifeless Hector, and his corpse Was bartering for gold. Also himself he saw, mixed with the chiefs Of Greece, and the Eastern forces, and the arms Of swarthy Memnon. Penthesilea next, Raging, led on the Amazonian bands. With crescent bucklers, eager in the fight ; A golden girdle 'neath her naked breast ; — A maiden warrior, daring to contend With men!

While thus yEneas wondering views These things, and stands with a bewildered gaze. Dido the queen in all her loveliness Has come into the temple, a great band Of warrior youths attending on her steps. And busy with her future sovereignty. And raised upon a lofty throne, she sat.

To administer the laws and rights to all. With a great multitude surrounding them, Antheus, Sergestus, and the strong Cloanthus, And other Trojans, whom the frowning storm Had scattered on the sea, or carried off To other coasts. Astonished he stood there. As did Achates, struck with joy and fear. But the uncertain issue troubled them. And with just rule to curb the haughty tribes, We, miserable Trojans, tossed about By storms upon the seas, appeal to thee.

Defend our galleys from the dreadful flames ; Spare a devout and unoffending race. And take a nearer view of our affairs. No such hostile mind is ours ; Nor can we, vanquished, entertain such pride. There is a place, by Greeks Hesperia called ; An ancient land it is, potent in arms. Now, their descendants, it is said. Call it Italia, from their leader's name.

And overpowered by the drenching brine. Across the sea, and over pathless rocks ; Hither we few have floated to your shores. Permitting such a custom, — to refuse Its sea-coast's barren hospitalities. And stir up war on us, forbid to set Our feet upon the first shore that we see! In the Sicilian lands there are fields for us, And cities ; and renowned Acestes there Derives his lineage from the Trojan blood.

Suffer us but to draw on shore our fleet Shattered by winds, and from the woods to choose 7m New timbers and new oars, if so we may. Holding our course to Italy, our friends And king restored, joyfully yet attain That land and Latium. But if our chief hope Is gone, — if thee, best father of our race, 7»s The Lybian sea ingulfs, nor hope remains Of young lulus, — we may seek at least The straits of Sicily, the seats prepared In King Acestes' realm, from which we came.

Then briefly Dido spoke, with downcast eyes : — " Trojans, dismiss your fears, banish your cares. Experience hard, and my new kingdom's needs Force me to use such measures, and to guard 73s My boundaries far and wide. But who knows not Eneas' race, and Troy, — her valorous deeds.

Her men, and devastations of her war? With help from my resources. Or if here 74s On equal terms with us ye would remain. The city which I build is yours. Draw up Your ships. Trojans and Tyrians from me Shall no distinction know. I to the coasts Will send sure messengers, and give commands To search the farthest parts of Lybia, If, wrecked, he wanders in some wood or town. But first Achates urged iEneas thus : " O thou of birth divine.

What wish is this that rises in thy mind? We saw the sea ingulf; but all the rest Accords with what thy mother's words foretold," Scarce had he spoken, when the veiling cloud Suddenly broke, dissolving into air. With countenance and shoulders like a god. For she herself, his mother, on her son Had breathed a glory in his locks, and light Of radiant youth, and splendor in his eyes.

Or gives the silver or the Parian stone Setting of yellow gold. Then to the queen. O thou who alone hast pitied our woes, — The unutterable sufferings of our Troy! Who to us, a remnant from the Greeks, long tossed On sea and land, by much disaster worn, And wanting everything, dost give a share Of city and home ; — it is not in our power, O Dido!

To give thee worthy thanks. If anywhere What times so blest As those that bear thee? While the rivers to the sea Shall run, — while mountain shadows move around Their sides, — and while the heavens shall feed the stars. So long thy honor, and thy name and praise Shall last, whatever lands may call me hence. Dumb with amazement at first sight of him And his hard lot, Sidonian Dido stood, And thus began : " O thou of birth divine. What destiny pursues thee through a course Of so much peril?

On these savage coasts What power has thrown thee? And I indeed recall that Teucer came To Sidon, from his native land expelled. He held ; and from that day were known to me The Trojan city's fortunes, and thy name. And the Pelasgian kings. Thy enemy Himself the Trojan nation loudly praised, And deemed himself descended from their line. Come then, O warriors, enter our abodes!

I also from calamities like yours Have suffered much, till here I set my feet. She leads iEneas to the royal courts ; And in the temples of the gods, commands A sacrifice. And of fat lambs a hundred, with their dams. Such were her gifts, for joyous feasts designed. And records of ancestral deeds, engraved In gold, in a long series of events Traced step by step from ancient lineage down. Gifts too, that from the wreck of Troy were snatched. He orders him to bring; a mantle stiff With figures and with gold ; also a veil With saffron-hued acanthus broidered round ; — 84s The Grecian Helen's ornaments, the rare And wondrous gifts her mother Leda gave.

And which her daughter from Mycenae brought To Troy, seeking illicit marriage rites. Also the sceptre Ilione once had borne, Eldest of Priam's daughters ; — and with these A beaded necklace, and a diadem Double with gems and gold. Hastening for these. Achates to the ships pursued his way. But Cytherea in her breast revolves ssj New arts and new designs ; that Cupid, changed In face and form, may pass for Ascanius, Inflame with gifts the ardent queen, and send The fire of love through all her glowing limbs.

For she the dubious faith and double tongues seo Of Tyrians fears. Fierce Juno vexes her; And with the night her troubled thoughts return. Then to the winged god of love she speaks : " O son, who art my strength, my mighty power ; Son, who alone the dread Typhoean bolts Of the great father dost despise ; to thee I fly, and suppliant demand thy aid.

How by fell Juno's hate, on every coast Thy brother iEneas is driven about the seas. Thou knowest, and often sorrowest for our grief. At such a turning-point in these affairs She will not pause. Therefore I meditate How I beforehand may possess this queen. And gird her round with flames, lest she should change By influence of any deity. The princely boy This is my cherished plan prepares to go To Carthage, at the summons of his sire.

With gifts from seas and from the flames of Troy Rescued. Him, having lulled in deepest sleep, 8S5 I shall conceal on high Cythera's top. Or on Idalium, my sacred seat. Lest he should know our wiles, or thwart our schemes. And when the joyous Dido takes thee up Upon her lap, amid the royal feast.

When the Lyasan wine is foaming high ; When she embraces thee with kisses soft, — Then breathe into her heart thy hidden fire. Beguiling her with poison. And smiling imitates lulus' gait. To the high Idalian groves, where breathing soft. Sweet-marjoram beds with perfume and with shade Embrace him sleeping. And now Cupid went, 90s Obeying her behest, the royal gifts Conveying to the Tyrians, and led on, Well pleased to have Achates for his guide.

When he arrived, upon a golden couch With sumptuous tapestry, the queen reclined In state within the middle of the hall. And now iEneas, now the Trojan youths Assemble, and on purple couches lie. Then water for their hands the servants bring, And bread from baskets, and around supply Towels with nap well shorn. Within are seen Fifty maid-servants, who in long array Attend the hearths, and with burnt sacrifice Enlarge the influence of the household gods ; A hundred others too, of equal age, Who serve the dishes, and who fill the cups.

And crowds of Tyrians also come, and throng The festive rooms, invited to recline Upon the embroidered couches. Much they admire The gifts iEneas brought ; lulus too, Book 41 The glowing beauty of the godlike face, And simulated speech ; the cloak, the veil With safFron-hued acanthus broidered round. Moved by the boy and by his gifts alike.

He, having hung about Eneas' neck. Locked in a fond embrace, and the deep love Of his false father satisfied, then seeks 93s The queen ; she with her eyes and all her heart Clings to him, fondles him upon her lap ; — Nor knows, unhappy one, how great the god Who presses on her breast. And unaccustomed motions of her heart. When in the feast there came a pause, the plates Removed, large bowls are set, the wines are crowned ; The rooms are filled with noise ; the spacious halls Resound with voices.

O'erlaid with gold, hang lighted lamps, and night Is vanquished by the torches' blaze. As Belus did, and his descendants all. Then silence hushed the rooms, while thus the queen : — " O Jove, — for thou, 't is said, dost give the laws 9ss Of guests and hosts alike, — be it thy will. That this may be a joyful day to all, Tyrians and Trojans, in remembrance held By our descendants. Bacchus, giver of joy. Be present ; and, propitious Juno, smile!

And, with a bantering tone, to Bitias gave. And from the full gold drenched himself with wine. Then followed other guests of lordly rank. Long-haired lopas with his golden lyre Pours out with ringing voice what Atlas taught. The Tyrians shout. Redoubling their applause ; the Trojans join. Thus did the unhappy queen prolong the night With varied converse, drinking in the while Long draughts of love : and much of Priam asked And much of Hector ; how equipped in arms Aurora's son had come ; how looked the steeds Of Diomed ; how large Achilles stood.

And all thy people's sad mishaps, and all Thy voyages ; for now the seventh year Bears thee still wandering over land and sea. LL silent sat, with looks intent ; when thus iEneas from his lofty couch began. O queen, thou dost command me to renew A grief unutterable ; how the Greeks O'erturned the power and lamentable realm s Of Troy : the afflicting scenes that I myself Beheld, and a great part of which I was.

Who of the Myrmidons or Dolopes, Or of the hard Ulysses' soldiery. Can, speaking of such things, refrain from tears? And all the sinking stars persuade to sleep. Still, if there be such earnest wish to hear Our sad disasters, and in brief to know The last expiring sufferings of Troy, is Though my soul shudders at the memory. And in its grief shrinks back, I will begin. Book This they pretend to be A votive offering for their safe return. The isle of Tenedos lies full in sight. Well known to fame, and in resources rich.

And here our foes upon the desert coast Conceal themselves, while we suppose them gone. Returning to Mycenae with the wind. Therefore all Troy her long grief throws aside ; 35 The gates stand open ; and we go to see With joy the Doric camps, the abandoned posts. And the deserted shore. The Dolopes Were here, and here the fierce Achilles camped ; Here lay their fleet ; and here were battles fought.

Some at the virgin Pallas' fatal gift Astonished stare, and the huge horse's size Admire. And place it in the citadel, — thus moved 4s By treacherous design ; or else the fates Of Troy so ordered it. So the uncertain crowd divided stood With views conflicting.

First, in front of all. Attended by a numerous throng of men, s5 Laocoon from the citadel runs down. Impetuously, and from a distance cries : " O wretched men! What madness, citizens. Is this? Believe ye then our foes are gone? Or is it thus Ulysses has been known? Book II. And overlook our houses, and descend 65 Upon our city ; or some other guile Is lurking. Trojans, do not trust this horse.

Quivering 'neath the blow It stood, and all the caverns of its womb Resounded with a roar. And if the fates Divine had favored, and a serious mind been ours, is He would have then impelled us to destroy With arms the hiding-places of the Greeks ; And Troy would now be standing, and thou saved, O lofty citadel of Priam!

Lo, Meanwhile the Trojan shepherds with loud cries so Dragged to the king a young man tightly bound With hands behind his back, who, quite unknown To them, surrendered of his own accord ; With the design to open to the Greeks The gates of Troy, and, resolute of will, 85 Either to use deceit, or encounter death. Eager to see, from every quarter rush, In a tumultuous throng, the Trojan youths.

And vie in insults on the captive. For while he stood. Troubled, defenceless, in the sight of all. And gazed around upon the Trojan bands ; " Alas," he said, " what land now, or what sea Can harbor me? Or what remains for me, 9s Unhappy wretch, for whom there is no place Among the Greeks, and upon whom besides The vengeful Trojans seek a bloody death! And every violent impulse checked at once. He, Fear at length laid aside, addressed us thus : — "To thee, O king, whatever the result May be, I will confess the truth entire ; Nor shall deny I am by birth a Greek.

This first. For if Sinon has been wretched made By fortune hard, not therefore was he made Book In conversation thou no Perchance hast heard the name and famous deeds Of Palamedes, of the line of Belus ; Whom, innocent, accused of treachery, And by false witnesses, the Greeks condemned To death, because he had opposed the war.

My father, who was poor, and near of kin. Sent me as his companion to the war To attend him, from the earliest years of youth. As long as he stood firm in princely power, And flourished in the councils of the kings, I too somewhat of name and honor bore. But afterward, — I speak of things well known, — When by the plausible Ulysses' hate. Afflicted and indignant at the fate Of him, my guiltless friend. Nor did I hold My peace, fool that I was, but vowed revenge. Hence came ruin's first plague-spot.

For from this time, with accusations new Ulysses ever sought to frighten me, 13s And spread ambiguous rumors through the crowd ; And, conscious of his guilt, sought armed defence. Nor did he rest, until by Calchas' means — But why should I recall these painful themes In vain? And to hear this is proof enough for you? Now then at once inflict your punishment.

Ulysses wishes this, and Atreus' sons Will well reward it. He tremblingly went on, with words of guile : — " Full oft the Greeks sought to contrive their flight, And, weary of long war, abandon Troy. Would that they had! Oft did the tempest rough Upon the sea prevent, and southern winds Deter them going; and especially When now this horse stood there, with wooden beams iss Constructed, — then through all the sky the clouds Book Even so through blood must your return be sought.

Propitiating heaven with Grecian life. Forth then Ulysses drags into the midst. With loud uproar, Calchas the priest, and asks What in such case the deities might will. And many persons now presaged to me This artful schemer's cruel wickedness. And quietly foresaw the event to come. The priest for ten days held his peace, and still 17s Refused, dissembling, to name any one. As doomed to death. At length reluctantly Driven by the clamors of the Ithacan, He breaks his silence, and, as was agreed.

He destines me to the altar. All assent. And what each one was fearing for himself. Turned to the ruin of one wretched man. They patiently endure. And now had come The dreadful day, the sacred rites prepared. The salted meal, the fillets round my brows : — I broke away from death ; I snapped my chains ; And in a miry swamp I lay all night Hidden, and screened from view by long marsh grass. Till they should spread if haply so they should Their sails unto the wind. But now for me , There is no hope to see my native land.

Nor my sweet children, nor my father dear. Whom they will yet, perhaps, for my escape. Demand for punishment, and this offence- Of mine will expiate by the death of those Unhappy ones. Therefore I thee entreat. By the supernal powers, and deities Conscious of truth, — by unviolated faith, — If such there be remaining still with man, — Pity these woes of mine, — pity a soul aoo Deserving not such sufferings as these.

And freely pitied him. Priam himself Book I I. Henceforth forget the Greeks whom thou hast lost ; Be one of us ; and truly tell the things That I shall ask of thee. With what design Have they constructed this gigantic horse? What do they intend? Is it religious in its aim, or is 't An engine framed for war? The man, Skilled in deceit and Grecian artifice. Raised his unfettered hands toward the stars.

In your inviolable divinity! If any they conceal! Nor am I now Bound by my country's laws. Only do thou Remain true to thy promise, and, Troy saved, Keep faith with me, if I disclose the truth. And largely pay thee back what thou hast done. They snatched away the sacred effigy. And with their bloody hands presumed to touch The virgin fillets of the goddess : — then.

E'en from that time, the Greeks began to lose Their hopes, which, slipping backward, flowed away, — Their strength all broken, and the deity Averse. Nor did Tritonia indicate These things by doubtful prodigies ; for scarce Had they deposited within their camp The image, when from her wide-open eyes Flashed gleaming flames, and through her limbs salt sweat Exuded ; and three times from off the ground — Wonderful to relate!

And brought the goddess back, now borne away By them, in their curved ships, across the sea. Arms they prepare to bring, and guardian gods ; And, the sea crossed again, will soon be here. Thus Calchas read the omens ; and so warned.

They built in place of the Palladium, And of the violated deity. This image, to atone for their foul crime. And so protect you with the ancient faith. In mighty war, and our posterity Experience these fates. Here another dire event More dreadful far befalls, disturbing us. Wretched and unprepared, with gloomy thoughts. Laocoon, chosen Neptune's priest by lot, A huge bull at the solemn altars there Was sacrificing, when behold,- two snakes — I shudder as I tell — from Tenedos Come gliding on the deep, with rings immense.

Pressing upon the sea, and side by side Toward the shore they move with necks erect. And bloody crests that tower above the waves ; Their other parts behind sweeping the sea. With huge backs winding on in sinuous folds.

A noise of foaming brine is heard. We, pale with terror, fly. But they with steady pace Laoco5n seek. And bites into their miserable limbs. Then him, as he with help and weapons comes. They seize, and bind him in their mighty spires; Twice round the middle, twice around his neck, 30s Twisting, with scaly backs, they raise on high Their heads and lofty necks.

He with his hands Strains to untwine the knots, his fillets wet With gore and poison black. His dreadful shrieks Rise to. But they. The dragons, slip away to the lofty shrine And citadel of cruel Pallas. There, Beneath the goddess' feet and orbed shield, They hide. Then verily a new fear creeps Into the trembling hearts of all.

Against the horse. And now all cry aloud To take the image to its rightful seat. Arid supplicate the goddess. We divide The walls, and open lay the battlements. All for the work prepare. The terrible machine Passes the walls, filled full with armed men. Onward it moves. And threatening glides into the city's midst. Alas, my country 1 Ilium, home of gods 1 Dardanian battlements renowned in war! Four times, e'en at the threshold of the gate, 33s It stopped : four times we heard the noise of arms Ring from the depths within.

Yet on we press. Thoughtless of omens, blind with furious zeal. And in the sacred citadel we lodge The fatal monster. And now Cassandra opes Her lips, — that by the deity's command Should never be believed by Trojan ears, — And prophesies to us our future fates. We, miserable, unto whom this day Book II. And now the Grecian hosts were moving on From Tenedos, their ships in order ranged.

Beneath the friendly silence of the moon. Toward the well-known shores, soon as appeared 35s The blazing signal from the royal ship. Defended by the adverse deities, Sinon unbars the wooden prison doors. And secretly lets loose the hidden Greeks. The horse stands open wide, and to the air Restores them. Joyful from the hollow wood They leap, — Tisandrus, Sthenelus, their chiefs. And fierce Ulysses, sliding down a rope. And with them Acamas and Thoas come.

And Peleus' offspring, Neoptolemus, 36s Machaon leading ; Menelaus too. And e'en Epeus, inventor of the fraud. They invade the city sunk in sleep and wine. The guards are slain ; their comrades they receive With opened gates, and join the expectant bands.

Then in my dreams, behold, Hector appeared. Distinctly present ; very sad he was, And weeping floods of tears. So once he looked. Dragged by the chariot wheels, and black with dust And blood, his swollen feet pierced through with thongs. Ah me, that face! How changed he was from him. But now the squalid beard he wore, and hair Matted with blood, and the wounds he took when dragged Around the city's walls.

Weeping m'yself, 38s I seemed to address him of my own accord. And to draw out these melancholy words : — " O light of Troy! Why hast thou stayed so long? And from what shores, O long-expected Hector, dost thou come.? Behold thee here? What undeserved cause Distorts thy face serene? And why these wounds? Thou goddess-born," he said, " fly from these flames! The enemy holds the walls. Troy rushes down From her high pinnacle. Enough is done For Priam and our country.

If right hand Could have defended Troy, minp 't would have been That so defended, Troy to thee commends Her sacred rites and household gods. These take, Companions of thy fates. With these go seek The mighty city thou one day shalt found At last, after thy wanderings o'er the sea. Meanwhile, with many a lamentable cry The city is confused.

And more and more. Although my sire Anchises' house stood far Away, hid and secluded 'mid the trees, The noise grew loud, and all the horrible clang Of arms increased. Starting from sleep, I gain With swift ascent the house-top's loftiest verge. And stand and listen with arrected ears.

Swollen to a rapid torrent, floods the fields. Bewildered by the rushing noise below. Then verily the false faith of the Greeks Is manifest, — their treacherous arts revealed. The broad Sigean waves reflect The fiery glow. And shouts of men are heard. And blare of trumpets. Wildly I seize my arms ; — Although for arms there seemed but little use. Comes hurrying by, and bearing in his hands The sacred vessels and the vanquished gods ; He leads his little grandson by the hand, And wildly to my threshold bends his steps.

On what citadel Do we now seize? Trojans no more are we. Gone now Is Troy, and all our glory! Cruel Jove To Argos now transfers the imperial rule. O'er all the burning town the Greeks hold sway. The towering horse stands in the city's midst, And pours out armed men.

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